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Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769] (13)
Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769]
AHLUVALIA MISL. See also MISLS Ahluvalia Misl was one of the twelve misls or Sikh confedracies which had gained power in the Punjab during the latter half of the eighteenth century, derived its name from the village of Ahlu, in Lahore district, founded by a Kalal or distiller of wine, named Sadao. One of his descendants, Badar Singh, married the sister of Bagh Singh Hallovalla, who had received the rites of the Khalsa at the hands of Nawab Kapur Singh and who had come to acquire considerable means and influence.
Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769]
Tags: misls, misl, bhangi
Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769]
DAL KHALSA is the term used to describe the militia which came into being during the turbulent period of the second half of the eighteenth century and which became a formidable fighting force of the Sikhs in the northwestern part of India. The first Khalsa army formed and led by the creator of the Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708), had broken up at the time of the evacuation of Anandpur in December 1705. Another force, at one time 40,000 strong, raised by Banda Singh Bahadur (1670-1716) was scattered after the caputre and execution of its leader.
Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769]
DALLEVALiA MISL. See MISLS DALLU, BHAI, a Rihan Khatri of Burhanpur, mentioned by Bhai Gurdas, Varan, XI. 30, among prominent Sikhs of the time of Guru Hargobind. See BHAGVAN DAS, BHAi
Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769]
JAGIRDARI, a feudal system of political and revenue administration based on jagir, lit. fief or grant of land received from the sovereign or a vassal owing fealty and obedience to him. Sikhs who, after the fall of Sirhind in early 1764, started occupying territory, did not automatically take to the jdgirdari system in vogue since the Sultanate and Mughal periods. Heads of various Sikh misis and lesser sarddrs or commanders had under them vast tracts of land, but their holdings were not jdgirs in the sense that they were owed to no sovereign above them.
Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769]
JATHA, from Sanskrit yutha meaning a herd, flock, multitude, troop, band or host, signifies in the Sikh tradition a band of volunteers coming forth to carry out a specific task, be it armed combat or a peaceful and nonviolent agitation. It is not clear when the term jathd first gained currency, but it was in common use by the first half of the eighteenth century. After the arrest and execution of Banda Singh Bahadur in 1716, the terror let loose by the Mughal government upon the Sikhs forced them to leave their homes and hearths and move about in small bands or jathds, each grouped around ajatheddror leader who came to occupy this position on account of his daring spirit and capacity to win the confidence of his comrades.
Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769]
MISLDARI OR MISALDARI, a system of political relationship as well as of land tenure which came into being with the rise of Sikh power in the eighteenth century Punjab. The Sikh warriors who, since the execution of Banda Singh Bahadur in 1716, had lived precariously as small guerilla bands, had by the middle of the century grouped themselves into eleven main divisions and started acquiring territory as misls. This was the origin of the Sikh misls which established their sway in the Punjab.
Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769]
MISLS. Misi is a term which originated in the eighteenth century history of the Sikhs to describe a unit or brigade of Sikh warriors and the territory acquired by it in the course of its campaign of conquest following the weakening of the Mughal authority in the country. Scholars trying to trace the etymology of the term have usually based their interpretation on the Arabic/Persian word misi. According to Stcingass, Persian English Dictionary, the word means "similitude, alike or equal", and "a file" or collection of papers bearing on a particular topic.
Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769]
NISHAN SAHIB is the name for the tall Sikh flag which marks all gurudwaras and other religious premises of the Sikhs. Nishdn is a Persian word with multiple meanings, one of these being a flag or standard. Sahib, an Arabic word with the applied meaning of lord or master, is here used as an honorific. Thus Nishan Sahib in the Sikh tradition means the holy flag or exalted ensign. A synonymous term is Jhanda Sahib (jhandd also meaning a flag or banner). The Sikh pennant, made out of saffron coloured, occasionally out of blue coloured, mainly in the case of Nihangs, cloth is triangular in shape, normally each of the two equal sides being double of the shorter one.
Sikh Confederacies [1708 - 1769]
PATTIDARI, lit. cosharing or shareholding, was, like mislddri, a system of land tenure during the Sikh period. The basic principle was traceable to the time honoured institution of joint family and inheritance of property in equal shares by descendants (male only) whenever a division took place, the rule of primogeniture being practically unknown in India as far as the common people were concerned. Patti in Punjabi means a share as well as partnership and pattiddr is a shareholder, cosharer or partner. The system emerged in the initial stages of Sikh rule in the Punjab.

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