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The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947] (55)
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
ELECTRIFICATION OF THE GOLDEN TEMPLE, Whether or not electricity be inducted into the Golden Temple premises was a raging polemic in the closing years of the nineteenth century. There were views pro and con, and the debate was joined by both sides vehemently and unyieldingly. As was then the style of making controversies, religious and social, no holds were barred and no acrimonious word spared to settle the argument. If tradition and usage were drawn upon by opponents, need to move with the limes was urged by the supporters, pejoratively called bijli bhaktas, devotees of electricity.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
ELLEN BOROUGH PAPERS, official and private correspondence and papers of Lord Ellen borough, Governor General of India (1842-44), preserved in the Public Records Office, London. Some of these papers were used by Lord Colchester in his History of the Indian Administration of Lord Ellen borough in His Correspondence with the Duke of Wellington and the Queen (London, 1874). Similarly, Sir Algernon Law published some selected papers in his India under Lord Ellen borough (London, 1926) containing references to the Punjab, particularly the dissensions in the State and the intentions of British government about its future. Among others, the Papers contain letters to and from the GovernorGeneral`s Agent, North-West Frontier (January 1844-June 1844) PRO 30/12 (60) and PRO 30/12 (106).
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
EUROPEAN ADVENTURERS OF NORTHERN INDIA, 1785 to 1849, by G. Grey, first published in 1929 and reprinted by the Languages Department, Punjab, Patiala, in 1970, contains biographical sketches of over one hundred Europeans who came to or served in the Punjab during Sikh times. The book, which is the result of "some six years of labour" in the archives of the Punjab Government as well as the consultation of a large number of contemporary memoirs and other works, supplements Compton`s European Adventurers which the author found both out of date and incomplete. Broadly speaking, these adventurers fall into two groups: well known men like George Thomas and Avitabile and the lesser known men "of whom no account has hitherto appeared." They could also be classified as combatants and noncombatants; the former category includes Generals like Ventura and Potter and the latter class includes medical men like Honigbergcr and Harlan, the antiquarian Masson and the engineer Bianchi.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
EVENTS AT THE COURT OF RANJIT SINGH, 1810-1817, edited by H.L.O. Garrett and G.I.. Ghopra, is a rendition in English of Persian newsletters comprising 193 loose sheets and forming only a small part of a large collection preserved in the Alienation Office, Pune. This material was brought to the notice of the editors by Dr Muhammad Nazim, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. Events at the Court, of Ranjit Singh was first published in 1935 by the Punjab Government Records Office, Lahore, as their monograph No. 17, and reprinted, in 1970, by the Languages Department, Punjab, Patiala. The newsletters, entitled "Akhbar Deorhi Sardar Ranjit Singh Bahadur" cover the period from 1 November 1810 to 8 August 1817, with a sprinkling of a few supplementary ones written up to 2 September 1817 from Shahpur, Multan, Amritsar and Rawalpindi.
25. FERINGHEE
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
FERINGHEE is an adaptation of the Indo Persian term frangi or firingi used to denote a person of European origin. It is dervied from Frank, "a member of a group of ancient Germanic peoples dwelling in the regions of the Rhine, one division of whom, the Salians, conquered Gaul [modern France so named after them] about AD 500." Turks were the first Asian people to come in contact with Franks whom they called frangi, a name applied to all Europeans. Europeans who came to India following the arrival in 1498 at Calicut of Vasco de Gama, a Portuguese explorer, were also called Feringhees.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
FIVE YEARS IN INDIA, by Henry Edward Fane, aide-de-camp to his uncle, General Sir Henry Fane, commander-in-chief of the army of the East India Company during late 1830`s, is "a narrative of [the author`s] travels in the Presidency of Bengal, a visit to the court of Runjeet Singh, a residence in the Himalayan mountains, an account of the late expedition to Cabul and Afghanistan, voyage down the Indus, and journey overland to England." Fane had kept an immaculate journal of his travels from the time his regiment got orders to move to Ceylon in June/ July 1835, till he arrived at Falmouth, England, in April 1840.His actual stay in India was of three and a half years, from August 1836, when he arrived at Calcutta, to the end of 1839, when he commenced his journey homeward. The travelogue was published in two volumes, under one cover, by Henry Colburn, London, in 1842.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
GURU NANAK SARBSAMPRADAI CONFERENCE, 1934, convened at Bhaini Sahib, centre of the Namdhari Sikhs, on 13 and 14 October 1934 at the instance of Baba Partap Singh, the Namdhari chief, with the primary object of forging unity among various Sikh sects following the teachings of Guru Nanak. Almost all the Sikh sects were represented at the Conference which was presided over by BhaT Arjan Singh of Bagariari. Svami Raj Tirath and Sant Hari Das attended the conference on behalf of the Udasis and Pandit Man Singh Shastri, Mahant Kishan Singh and Mahant Hakam Singh on behalf of the Nirmalas.The Scvapan this were represented by Pandit Nischal Singh and Mahant Gurbakhsh Singh and the Namdharis by Atma Singh of Rawalpindi, Nidhan Singh Alam and Sant Indar Singh ChakravartI, besides Baba Partap Singh himself.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
HARSARAN DAS was news writer of the British government at the Sikh capital of Lahore who sent his reports to the political agent at Ludhiana. His despatches cover the period of political turmoil at Lahore from the death of Karivar Nau Nihal Singh, 8 November 1840, to the assassination of Maharaja Sher Singh, 15 September 1843. He refers to the differences that arose between the Sikh Darbar and the British government, particularly on account of the Darbar`s plans to occupy the two frontier territories of Swat and Buner. Harsaran Das had reported in his diaries that Sikhs had received a secret agent from Nepal and that the Gorkha general, Matabar Singh, had paid a clandestine visit to Lahore.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
HOME MISCELLANEOUS SERIES is a manuscript series of records in the India Office Library, London. It is not chronologically arranged, and seems to have been classified to absorb surplus or duplicate copies of records which could not be included in the regular series. Many of the papers in this series relate to Sikh affairs and they include private letters of Captain Mathews, the Deputy Commissar of Ordnance at Fatehabad to the Acting Adjutant General, C.F. Falgan. Captain Mathews, who visited Lahore in his private capacity, was treated with much consideration by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
INDIA SECRET PROCEEDINGS (1834-1856), a manuscript series of Indian records at the India Office Library, London, succeeding Bengal Secret and Political Consultations (1800-34). It includes the entire range of despatches and correspondence of the North-West Frontier Agency from the heyday of Sikh political power in the Punjab down to the annexation of the Punjab in 1849.

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