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Home » » The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]

The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947] (55)
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
JACQUEMONTS JOURNAL is an account of the travels of Victor Jacquemont who had been sent out by the French Natural History Museum on the recommendation of Cuvier whose pupil he had been "to study the botany and geology of India, together with liberty to conduct any other investigation that he might deem of importance."Jacquemont landed in India, at Calcutta, on 6 May 1829 and died at Bombay on 7 December 1832 as a result of abscess of liver. On his arrival at Calcutta, he was received by Lord William Bentinck, then Governor General of India, and it was with his help that he was able to visit both the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the Sikh province of Kashmir.The Journal is divided into four main divisions.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
JAITO MORCHA, the name given to the Akali agitation for the restoration to his throne of Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha, a Sikh princely state in the Punjab. The Maharaja had strong pro-Akali sympathies and had overtly supported the Guru ka Bagh Morcha and donned a black turban as a mark of protest against the massacre of the reformists at Nankana Sahib. His contacts with the Indian nationalist leaders and involvement in popular causes had irked the British government. On 9 July 1923, he was forced to abdicate in favour of his minor son, Partap Singh. 
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
JALLIANVALA BAGH MASSACRE, involving the killing of hundreds of unarmed, defenceless Indians by a senior British military officer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa. Jalliarivala Bagh, lit. a garden belonging to the Jallas, derives its name from that of the owners of the place in Sikh times. It was then the property of the family of Sardar Himmat Singh (d. 1829), a noble in the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780-1839), who originally came from the village of Jalla, now in Fatehgarh Sahib district of the Punjab.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
KHALSA DARBAR RECORDS, official papers in Persian, written in a running shikasid hand, pertaining to the civil, military and revenue administration of the Punjab under the Sikhs covering a period of 38 years, Samvat 1868 to Chet 1906 (AD 1811 to March 1849). These documents, which came into the hands of the British after the annexation of the Punjab in 1849, lay in heaps on the shelves of the vernacular office in the Civil Secretariat in Lahore and remained in that state untouched until work on arranging and classifying them started under the orders of the Li Covcrnor, Sir Michael O`Dwycr (1912-19).
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
KIRPAN MORCHA, campaign started by the Sikhs to assert their right to keep and carry kirpan, i.e. sword, religiously obligatory for them, which was denied to them under the Indian Arms Act (XI) of 1878. Under this Act, no person could go armed or carry arms, except under special exemption or by virtue of a licence. Whatever could be used as an instrument of attack or defence fell under the term "Arms." Thus the term included firearms, bayonets, swords, dagger heads and bows and arrows. Under the Act, a kirpan could be bracketed with a sword.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
KOMAGATA MARU, a Japanese tramp steamer, renamed Guru Nanak Jahaz, launched from Hong Kong by Baba Gurdit Singh (1860-1954), an adventurous Sikh businessman, to take a batch of Indian emigrants to Canada. This was done to circumvent the new Canadian Immigration Ordinances which, aiming to stop the influx of Indians, prohibited entry into Canada of all immigrants from Asia except by a "continuous journey on through tickets from the country of their birth or citizenship." In view of tightened immigration controls, shipping companies were loath to issue tickets to Indians seeking passage to Canada and in Hong Kong, particularly, there was a backlog of Indians, most of whom were Punjabi Sikhs, hoping to find some way to emigrate to what they considered the land of opportunity. Their plight captured the attention of Gurdit Singh who, making Singapore his headquarters, decided to test the Canadian restrictions.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
LUDHIANA POLITICAL AGENCY, renamed North-West Frontier Agency in 1835, was established in 1810 as tlie main official channel of Anglo-Sikh political and diplomatic communications. When, in February 1809, Lt. Col David Ochlerlony established a British military post at Ludhiana during Charles Metcalfe`s negotiations with Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the town belonged to Raja Bhag Singh of Jtnd. Ranjit Singh had seized Ludhiana from the ruling Muhammadan family during his Malva campaign of 1807 and bestowed it on Bhag Singh.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
MONTAGUCHELMSFORD REFORMS AND THE SIKHS. The first time the elective principle was introduced to choose representatives for legislative bodies in India was with the introduction of the scheme known as Morley Minto reforms of 1909. By then the Muslims had succeeded in persuading Lord Minto, Governor General of India, that since they were in a minority, proper representation should be ensured them by reserving for them seats which they alone could contest and for which they alone could vote, with weigh t age given them to offset the Hindu preponderance in numbers. The Chief Khalsa Diwan, speaking on behalf of the Sikhs, asked for similar concessions for them.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
NANKANA SAHIB MASSACRE refers to the grim episode during the Gurdwara Reform movement in which a peaceful batch of reformist Sikhs was subjected to a murderous assault on 20 February 1921 in the holy shrine at Nankana Sahib, the birthplace of Guru Nanak. This shrine along with six others in the town had been under the control of Udasi priests ever since the time the Sikhs were driven by Mughal oppression to seek safety in remote hills and deserts. In Sikh times these gurudwaras were richly endowed by the State. The priests not only treated ecclesiastical assets as their private properties but had also introduced practices and ceremonial which had no sanction in Sikhism.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
OFFER OF SIKH STATE RECALLED BY MAHARAJA YADAVINDER SINGH. It was raining heavily and my garden was enveloped in mist. We were having the First real monsoon downpour of the season. The beautiful dahlias, some of them 10 inches or more in diameter, were sadly drooping. The gladioli were not looking too happy, either. This was all too much for them. 

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