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The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947] (55)
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
POONA RESIDENCY CORRESPONDENCE is an English rendering, in several volumes, of selections from the Persian records of the Peshwa Dafiar, a collection of British official records of the Resident`s transactions concerning the cis Sutlej region. Prior to the establishment of the Delhi Residency (1803) and the Ludhiana Agency (1809), the British Resident with the Scindia at Fatehgarh was responsible for all such political transactions. The correspondence contains information, sometimes trivial, even conjectural, about the Sikhs before and after 1800.Mr Collins, who was .
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
PROCLAMATION (1849), declaring that the kingdom of the Punjab had ceased to be and that all the territories of Maharaja Duleep Singh had become part of the British dominions in India, was issued on 29 March 1849 by Governor General Lord Dalhousie. Earlier in the day a darbdrwsis held in the palace inside the Fort at Lahore by Henry M. Elliot, the foreign secretary, under the orders of the Governor General. It was attended by the minor Maharaja Duleep Singh, seated for the last time on the throne of his father, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, surrounded by the British troops and his helpless sarddrs.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
RIKABGANJ AGITATION (1913-20) marked the Sikh protest against the demolition by the British of one of the walls of the historical Rikabganj shrine in New Delhi. Gurdwara Rikabganj, sacred to the memory of Guru Tegh Bahadur, at present a. splendid marble edifice, was, in the early years of the present century, a small structure in what was then known as the Raisina village. This was close to the site where the new imperial complex was to be raised in consequence of the colonial government`s decision to shift the capital from Calcutta to Delhi.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES, held in London during 1930-32, were a series of high level meetings attended by representatives of the British government, rulers of Indian princely states and leaders of public opinion in British India to discuss proposals for introducing further constitutional reforms in India on the basis of the Simon Commission`s report. The adjectival term `round table`, reminding one of the Arthurian legends, has been defined as "pertaining to a conference, discussion or deliberation in which each participant has equal status.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
SAKA PANJA SAHIB, the heroic event which took place at Hasan Abdal railway station, close to the sacred shrine of Pahja Sahib on the morning of 30 October 1922 and which has since passed into folklore as an instance of Sikh courage and resolution. A nonviolent morcha or agitation to assert the right to felling trees for Guru ka Langar from the land attached to Gurdwara Guru ka Bagh in Amritsar district, already taken over from the priests by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee after a negotiated set dement, had started on 8 August 1922. At first Sikh volunteers were arrested and tried for trespass, but from 25 August police resorted to beating day after day the batches of Sikhs that came.This went on till 13 September when, on the intervention of the Punjab Governor, the beating stopped and the procedure of arrests resumed.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
SARAGARHI, BATTLE OF, a heroic action fought by a small detachment of Sikh soldiers against heavy odds, took place on 12 September 1897 in the Tirah region of North-West Frontier Province (now in Pakistan). The heroes of Saragarhi, barely 22 in number, belonged to the 36th Sikhs, since re-designated as 4th Battalion of the Sikh Regiment of the Indian Army. During a general uprising of the turbulent Pathan tribals of Tirah in 1897, the battalion was deployed to defend Samana Ridge, a hill feature 8 km in length separating the Kurram and the Khanki valleys.The headquarters and four companies were located in Fort Lockhart at the eastern end of the ridge and the other four companies in Fort Cavagnari, commonly known as Gulistan, at its western end, with several smaller outposts at different strategic points.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
SHAHIDGANJ AGITATION (1935-40) marked culmination of the tussle between Sikh and Muslim communities in the Punjab for the possession of a sacred site in Lahore upon which stood Gurdwara Shahidgahj (shahid = martyr, gahj = hoard, treasure or mart) in memory of Sikh martyrs of the eighteenth century and which the Muslims claimed as having been the location of an historic Islamic site.The Gurdwara is located in Landa Bazar midway between the Lahore railway station and the Delhi Gate at the site known earlier as Nakhas (Persian nakhkhas. meaning a marketplace for the sale of captives, horses and cattle taken as war prize). This was the place where thousands of Sikhs, including the celebrated Bhai Taru Singh, and about 3,000 captives of the Chhota Ghallughara campaign (1746) were executed or tortured to death.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
SIKANDARBALDEV SINGH PACT is the name popularly given to the rapprochement arrived at in 1942 between the Akalis and the Muslim dominated Unionist Party, then ruling the pre partition province of the Punjab, as a result of which the Akali nominee, Baldev Singh, joined the Unionist Cabinet under Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan. The Unionist government had taken office in 1937 following elections held under the Government of India Act 1935, introducing provincial autonomy with a wholly Indian ministry responsible to the legislative assembly.At the pools the Unionist Party had emerged successful with a large majority, and its leader, Sir Sikandar, had formed the government winning the support of some Hindu and Sikh members, especially those representing landed interests. The Sikhs who had 31 seats in the 175member legislative assembly were divided into two main groups, one representing the Khalsa National Party and the other Shiromam Akali Dal.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
SIKH GURDWARAS ACT, 1925, legislation passed by the Punjab Legislative Council which marked the culmination of the struggle of the Sikh people from 1920-1925 to wrest control of their places of worship from the mab-ants or priests into whose hands they had passed during the eighteenth century when the Khalsa were driven from their homes to seek safety in remote hills and deserts. When they later established their sway in Punjab, the Sikhs rebuilt their shrines endowing them with large jagirs and estates.The management, however, remained with the priests, belonging mainly to the Udasi sect, who, after the advent of the British in 1849, began to consider the shrines and lands attached to them as their personal properties and to appropriating the income accruing from them to their private use. Some of them alienated or sold gurdwara properties at will.
The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
SIKHS AND THE TRANSFER OF POWER. The Sikhs, after the two Anglo Sikh wars, lost their kingdom and the Punjab came under the British rule in 1849. The British, by the construction of railways, roads and canals, brought the province stability. The Sikhs, along with other Punjab is, became the most prosperous peasantry in India and they joined in increasing numbers the army under the British. But signs of unrest began to appear among them as legislation restricting the rights of colonists in the canal irrigated lands allotted to them was passed.

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The etymology of the term 'gurdwara' is from the words 'Gur (ਗੁਰ)' (a reference to the Sikh Gurus) and 'Dwara (ਦੁਆਰਾ)' (gateway in Gurmukhi), together meaning 'the gateway through which the Guru could be reached'. Thereafter, all Sikh places of worship came to be known as gurdwaras.

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