- Category: The British and Sikhs [1849 - 1947]
ANGLOSIKH TREATIES (LAHORE, 9 and 11 March 1846). After the end of the first Anglo Sikh war, the British governor general, Lord Harding, entered the Sikh capital on 20 February 1846, and on 9 March imposed upon the young Maharaja Duleep Singh, then aged seven and a half years, a treaty of peace. The preamble to the treaty accused the Lahore government and the Sikh army of having violated the terms of the treaty of 1809 by unprovoked aggression on British provinces. The territories of Maharaja Duleep Singh, situated on the left bank of the Sutlej, were confiscated and annexed.
According to the terms of the treaty, the Maharaja renounced for himself and his heirs all claims in connection with these territories. He ceded to the East India Company in perpetual sovereignty, "all his forts, territories and rights" in the Jalandhar Doab the territory both hilly and plain lying between the Sutlej and the Beas and agreed to the payment of one and a half crores of rupees as indemnity for the expenses of the war. As the Lahore government was unable to pay this amount, additional hilly territory situated between the Beas and the Indus, including the provinces of Kashmir and Hazara, was taken over by the British.The Sikh army which the British dubbed in the treaty as "mutinous troops of the Lahore Army," was disbanded, and the strength of the new one to be organized was restricted to 25 battalions of infantry (20,000 men), and 12,000 cavalry.
Under certain specific conditions, British troops were to have free passage through Lahore territories. All guns used in the war were to be surrendered to the British. Maharaja Duleep Singh also agreed never to take or retain in his service any British subject nor any European or American national without the consent of the British.The Lahore government were to recognize the independent sovereignty of Raja Gulab Singh in his possessions, and in those which would be made over to him by the British government.
Additional articles supplementary to the treaty, added two days later (11 March 1846), provided (a) that at the solicitation of the Darbar, a British force would remain in occupation of Lahore, in the fort as well as in the city, till the end of the year 1846, to protect the Maharaja during the reorganization of the army, (b) that the British govern ^ ment shall respect the bonaFide rights of jagirdars in the Lahore territories, and (c) that the British government shall be at liberty to retain any part of the State property in the forts in the ceded territories, paying adequate compensation.Texts of the treaties: Treaty between the British Government and the State of Lahore1846 Whereas the treaty of amity and concord, which was concluded between the British Government and the late Maharajah Runjeet Sing, the Ruler of Lahore, in 1809, was broken by the unprovoked aggression, on the British Provinces, of the Sikh Army, in December last; and whereas, on that occasion, by the Proclamation, dated 13th December, the territories then in the occupation of the Maharajah of Lahore, on the left or British bank of the River Sutlej, were confiscated and annexed to the British Provinces; and since that time hostile operations have been prosecuted by the two Governments; the one against the other, which have resulted in the occupation of Lahore by the British troops; and whereas it has been determined that, upon certain conditions, peace shall be reestablished between the two Governments, the following treaty of peace between the Honorable English East India Company and Maharajah Dhuleep Sing Bahadoor, and his children, heirs and successors, has been concluded on the part of the Honorable Company by Frederick Currie, Esquire, and Brevet Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, by virtue of full powers to that effect vested in them by the Right Hon`ble Sir Henry Harding, G.C.B., one other Britannic Majesty`s Most Hon`ble Privy Council, Governor General, appointed by the Hon`ble Company to direct and control all their affairs in the East Indies, and on the part of His Highness Maharajah Dhuleep Sing by Bhaee Ram Sing, Rajah Lal Sing, Sirdar Tej Sing, Sirdar Chuttur Sing Attareewalla, Sirdar Runjore Sing Majeethia, Dewan Deena Nath and Fakeer Nooroodden, vested with full powers and authority on the part of His Highness.
Article 1.There shall be prepetual peace and friendship between the British Government on the one part, and Maharajah Dhuleep Sing, his heirs and successors on the other. Article 2. The Maharajah of Lahore renounces for himself, his heirs and successors, all claim to, or connection with the territories lying to the south of the River Sutlej, and engages never to have any concern with those territories or the inhabitants thereof. Article 3. The Maharajah cedes to the Hon`ble Company, in prepetual sovereignty, all his forts, territories and rights in the Doab or country, hill and plain, situated between the Rivers Beas o and Sutlej.
Article 4. The British Government having demanded from the Lahore State, as indemnification for the expenses of the war, in addition to the cession of territory described in Article 3, payment of one and half crore of Rupees, and the Lahore Government being unable to pay, the whole of this sum at this time, or to give security satisfactory to the British Government for its eventual payment, the Maharajah cedes to the Honorable Company, in prepetual sovereignty, as equivalent for one crore of Rupees, all his forts, territories, rights and interests in the hill countries, which are situated between the Rivers Beas and Indus, including the Provinces of Cashmere and Hazarah.Article 5. The Maharajah will pay to the British Government the sum of 60 lakhs of Rupees on or before the ratification of this Treaty. Article 6. The Maharajah engages to disband the mutinous troops of the Lahore Army, taking from them their armsand His Highness agrees to reorganize the Regular or Aeen Regiments of Infantry, upon the system, and according to the Regulations as to pay and allowances, observed in the time of the late Maharajah Runjeet Sing. The Maharajah further engages to pay up all arrears to the soldiers that are discharged, under the provisions of this Article. Article 7. The Regular Army of the Lahore State shall henceforth be limited to 25 Battalions of Infantry, consisting of 800 bayonets each with twelve thousand Cavalry this number at no time to be exceeded without the concurrence of the British Government.
Should it be necessary at any time for any special cause that this force should be increased, the cause shall be fully explained to the British Government, and when the special necessity shall have passed, the regular troops shall be again reduced to the standard specified in the former Clause of this Article. Article 8. The Maharajah will surrender to the British Government all the guns thirty six in number which have been pointed against the British troopsand which, having been placed on the right Bank of the River Sutlej, were not captured at the battle of Subraon.Article 9. The control of the Rivers Beas and Sutlej, with the continuations of the latter river, commonly called the Gharrah and the Punjnud, to the confluence of the Indus at Mithunkoteand the control of the Indus from Mithunkote to the borders of Beloochistan, shall, in respect to tolls and ferries, rest with the British Government. The provisions of this Article shall not interfere with the passage of boats belonging to the Lahore Government on the said rivers, for the purpose of traffic or the conveyance of passengers up and down their course.
Regarding the ferries between the two countries respectively, at the several ghats of the said rivers, it is agreed that the British Government, after defraying all the expenses of management and establishments, shall account to the Lahore Government for one half the net profits of the ferry collections. The provisions of this Article have no reference to the ferries on that part of the River Sutlej which forms the boundary of Bhawulpore and Lahore respectively. Article 10. If the British Government should, at any time, desire to pass troops through the territories of His Highness the Maharajah, for the protection of the British territories, or those of their Allies, the British troops shall, on such special occasion, due notice being given, be allowed to pass through the Lahore territories.In such case the officers of the Lahore State will afford facilities in providing supplies and boats for the passage of rivers, and the British Government will pay the full price of all such provisions and boats, and will make fair compensation for all private property that may be damaged.
The British Government will, moreover, observe all due consideration to the religious feelings pf the inhabitants of those tracts through which the army may pass. Article 11. The Maharajah engages never to take or to retain in his service any British subjectnor the subject of any European or American State without the consent of the British Government.Article 12. In consideration of the services rendered by Rajah Golab Sing of Jummoo, to the Lahore State, towards procuring the restoration of the relations of amity between the Lahore and British Governments, the Maharajah hereby agrees to recognize the Independent sovereignty of Rajah Golab Sing in such territories and districts in the hills as may be made over to the said Rajah Golab Sing, by separate Agreement between himself and the British Government, with the dependencies thereof, which may have been in the Rajah`s possession since the time of the late Maharajah Khurruck Sing, and the British Government, in consideration of the good conduct of Rajah Golab Sing, also agrees to recognize his independence in such territories, and to admit him to the privileges of a separate Treaty with the British Government.Article 13. In the event of any dispute or difference arising between the Lahore State and Rajah Golab Sing, the same shall be referred to the arbitration of the British Government, and by its decision the Maharajah engages to abide.
Article 14. The limits of the Lahore territories shall not be, at any time, changed without the concurrence of the British Government. Article 15. The British Government will not exercise any interference in the internal administration of the Lahore Statebut in all cases or questions which may be referred to the British Government, the Governor General will give the aid of his advice and good offices for the furtherance of the interests of the Lahore Government.eArticle 16. The subjects of either State shall, on visiting the territories of the other, be on the footing of the subjects of the most favoured nation. This Treaty consisting of sixteen articles, has been this day settled by Frederick Currie, Esquire, and Brevet Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence acting under the directions of the Right Hon`ble Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., Governor General, on the part of the British Government, and by Bhaee Ram Sing, Rajah Lal Sing, Sirdar Tej Sing, Sirdar Chuttur Sing Attareewalla, Sirdar Runjore Sing Majeethia, Dewan Deena Nath, and Faqueer Noorooddeen, on the part of the Maharajah Dhuleep Sing, and the said Treaty has been this day ratified by the seal of the Right Hon`ble Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., Governor General, and by that of His Highness Maharajah Dhuleep Sing.
Done at Lahore, this ninth day of March, in year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, corresponding with the tenth day of INGLOS1KH IKKAiitLa RubbeeooJawuJ, 1262 Hijree, and ratified on the same date. (Sd.) H. Harding (L.S.) (Sd.) Maharajah Dhuleep Sing (L.S.) Bhaee Ram Sing (L.S.) Rajah Lal Sing (L.S.) Sirdar Tej Sing (L.S.) Sirdar Chuttur Sing Attareewalla (L.S.) Sirdar Runjore Sing Majeethia (L.S.) Dewan Deena Nath (L.S.) Faqueer Noorooddeen (L.S.) ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT concluded between the BRITISH GOVERNMENT and the LAHORE DURBAR on 11 March 1846 Whereas the Lahore Government has solicited the Governor General to leave a British Force at Lahore, for the protection of the Maharajah`s person and of the Capital, till the reorganization of the Lahore army, according to the provisions of Article 6 of the Treaty of Lahore, dated the 9th instant; and whereas the Governor General has, on certain conditions, consented to the measure; and whereas it is expedient that certain matters concerning the territories ceded by Articles 3 and 4 of the aforesaid Treaty should be specifically determined, the following eight Articles of Agreement have this day been concluded between the aforementioned contracting parties.
Article 1. The British Government shall leave at Lahore, till the close of the current year, AD 1846, such force as shall seem to the Governor General adequate for the purpose of protecting the person of the Maharajah and the inhabitants of the City of Lahore, during the reorganization of the Sikh Army, in accordance with the provisions of Article 6 of the Treaty of Lahore. That force to be withdrawn at any convenient time before the expiration of the year, if the object to be fulfilled shall, in the opinion of the Durbar, have been attained but the force shall not be detained at Lahore beyond the expiration of the current year.Article 2. The Lahore Government agrees that the force left at Lahore for the purpose specified in the foregoing Article shall be placed in full possession of the Fort and the City of Lahore, and that the Lahore troops shall be removed from within the City.
The Lahore Government engages to furnish convenient quarters for the officers and men of the said force, and to pay to the British Government all the extra expenses in regard to the said force, which may be incurred by the British Government, in consequence of the troops being employed away from their own Cantonments and in a Foreign Territory.Article 3. The Lahore Government engages to apply itself immediately and earnestly to the reorganization of its army according to the prescribed conditions, and to communicate fully with the British authorities left at Lahore, as to the progress of such reorganization, and as to the location of the troops. Article 4. If the Lahore Government fails in the performance of the conditions of the foregoing Article, the British Government shall be at liberty to withdraw the force from Lahore at any time before the expiration of the period specified in Article 1. Article 5.The British Government agrees to respect the bonafide rights of those jaghiredars, within the territories ceded by Articles 3 and 4 of the Treaty of Lahore, dated 9th instant, who were attached to the families of the late Maharajahs Runjeet Sing, Kurruk Sing and Shere Sing; and the British Government will maintain those jaghiredars in their bonafide possessions during their lives.
Article 6. The Lahore Government shall receive the assistance of the British Local Authorities in recovering the arrears of revenue justly due to the Lahore Government from the kardars and managers in the territories ceded by the provisions of Articles 3 and 4 of the Treaty of Lahore, to the close of the khureef harvest of the current year, viz.1902 of the Sumbut Bikramajeet. Article 7. The Lahore Government shall be at liberty to remove from the forts, in the territories specified in the foregoing Article, all treasure and State property, with the exception of guns. Should, however, the British Government desire to retain any part of the said property, they shall be at liberty to do so, paying for the same at a fair valuation, and the British officers shall give their assistance to the Lahore Government in disposing on the spot of such part of the aforesaid property as the Lahore Government may not wish to remove, and the British Officers may not desire to retain.
Article 8. Commissioners shall be immediately appointed by the two Governments to settle and lay down the boundary between the two States, as defined by Article 4 of the Treaty of Lahore, dated March 9th, 1846. (Sd.) H. HARDINGE (L.S.) (Sd.) Maharajah Dhuleep Sing (L.S.) Bhaee Ram Sing (L.S.) Rajah Lal Sing (L.S.) Sirdar Tej Sing (L.S.) Sirdar Chuttur Sing Attareewalla (L.S.) Sirdar Runjore Sing Majeethia (L.S.) Dewan Deena Nath (L.S.) Faqueer Noorooddeen (L.S.)
1. Suri, Sohan Lal, `Umdat-ut-Twarikh. Lahore, 1885-89
2. Cunningham, Joseph Davey, A History of the Sikhs. London,1849
3. Ganda Singh, The British Occupation of the Panjab. Amritsar, 1955
4. Hasrat, B.J., Anglo-Sikh Relations. Hoshiarpur, 1968
5. Harbans Singh, The Heritage of the Sikhs. Delhi, 1983