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Musicology and Musicians (34)
1. ASA
Musicology and Musicians
ASA, one of the thirty one ragas or musical measures into which compositions comprising the Sikh holy book, Guru Granth Sahib, except the Japu, are cast and in which they are meant to be recited and sung. This raga is important in the Sikh system of music, and is said to have developed from the tune of a folk ballad Tunde Asraje di Var prescribed as the musical key for singing the Sikh morning liturgy, Asa ki Var.Asavari and Asa Kafi are two subsidiaries of Asa employed in the Guru Granth Sahib. Also, more appropriately, it is assigned to the cold season and is meant to evoke a calm mystical mood.
2. ASTPADI
Musicology and Musicians
ASTPADI, from Sanskrit astapada, astapad or astapadf, is a poetic composition comprising ast or eight padas or stanzas. No specific rhyme scheme, measure or burden is prescribed for it, but all the eight stanzas must be in the same metre and measure. Lines in each stanza are generally rhymed. In Sikh Scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib, there are astpadfs composed in different musical measures (ragas) and metres.
3. ALAHUNI
Musicology and Musicians
ALAHUNI,(mournful song by women) When a person dies. women cry and often sing songs in chorus in praise Of the deceased. There is a lot of pessimism in, such songs. Generally professional women used to lead in the singing of mourning songs. Guru Nanak used this form of poetry and wrote five hymns in Wadhans Raga. As mentioned in the Bhagavad Gita, the Guru believes in the transitory nature of human existence and the inevitability of death.
4. ALANKAR
Musicology and Musicians
ALANKAR,is the singing of notes (seams) in the melodic phrase of a raga. It can be done in different laya (tempo) which may be slow, medium or fast. A lankar literally means an ornament or decoration. It is the repetition of the musical notes of a raga in a sequential pattern.
5. BAIRARL
Musicology and Musicians
BAIRARL See SIKH DEVOTIONAL MUSIC
Musicology and Musicians
BARAH MAHA or BARAH MASA, in Hindi, is a form of folk poetry in which the emotions and yearnings of the human heart are expressed in terms of the changing moods of Nature over the twelve months of the year. In this form of poetry, the mood of Nature in each particular month (of the Indian calendar) depicts the inner agony of the human heart which in most cases happens to be a woman separated from her spouse or lover. In other words, the separated woman finds her own agony reflected in the different faces of Nature. The tradition of Barah Maha poetry is traceable to classical epochs.
7. BASANT,
Musicology and Musicians
BASANT, a musical measure used in the Guru Granth Sahib. It is a raga of the season of Basant (Skt. vasant) or spring, and during that season can be sung any time of day or night. Otherwise, it is reserved for the night between 9 p.m. and midnight. It is a very popular and melodious measure tracing its origin to the eighth century. In the Ragamala, as included in the Sikh scripture, it is recorded as a son (putra) of Hindol which is also a raga of spring.
8. BHAIRON
Musicology and Musicians
BHAIRON. See SIKH DEVOTIONAL MUSIC
Musicology and Musicians
BIHAGRA. See SIKH DEVOTIONAL MUSIC
10. BILAVAL.
Musicology and Musicians
BILAVAL. See SIKH DEVOTIONAL MUSIC

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