MACAULIFFE, MAX ARTHUR (1841-1913), English translator of the Sikh Scriptures and historian of Sikhism, was born on 10 September 1841 at Newcastle West, County Limerick, Ireland. He was educated at Newcastle School, Limerick, and at Springfield College and Queen\'s College, Galway. He received a broad humanistic education that allowed him
MACKESON, FREDERICK (1807-1853), son of William and Harriet Mackeson, was born on 28 September 1807, and educated at the King\'s School, Canterbury, and in France. In 1825, he joined the Bengal Native Infantry. In 1831, and for several years afterwards, his regiment was stationed at Ludhiana. In 1832, he was
MACNAGHTEN, SIR WILLIAM HAY (1793-1841), born in August 1793, was the son of Sir Francis Macnaghten. He was educated at Charter house and joined the service of the East India Company in 1809. He studied Hindustani, Persian and other Asiatic languages. His diplomatic career began towards the close of 1830,
MADAN SINGH, BHAI (d. 1705), one of the martyrs of Chamkaur (7 December 1705), was, according to local tradition popular in and around Bhagrana in Fatehgarh Sahib district of the Punjab, the son of Bhai Diala, a weaver of that village. Bhai Diala had received instruction from Guru Tegh Bahadur
MAGH SINGH, BHAI (d. 1924), one of the martyrs of Jaito morcha, was the son of Bhai Sham Singh and Mai Dharmon, farmers of the village of Lande in Moga tahsil (sub-division) of the present Moga district. In his early youth Magh Singh had enlisted in the army and had
MAHAN SINGH, BHAl (d. 1705), one of the martyrs of Muktsar, collectively called Chali Mukte, the Forty Liberated Ones. He, in addition to Mata (Mother) Bhago, was the only one among the wounded who had some life still left in him. As the Guru went across to visit the site
MAHINGA SINGH, BHAI (d. 1921), one of the Nankana Sahib martyrs, was born in a potter\'s family of Lahuke in Amritsar district. He along with his parents, Bhai Jhanda Singh and Mat Bhago, migrated to Chakk No 75 Lahuke in Lyallpur district when that area was colonized during the 1890\'s.
MANGAL SINGH KIRPAN BAHADUR, BHAI (1895-1921), one of the Nankana Sahib martyrs was born in 1895, the son of Bhai Ratia and Mat Hukmi in the village of Uddokc, in Gurdaspur district. He lost both of his parents while yet a small child, and grew up in very adverse circumstances
MASSE KHAN RANGHAR (d. 1740), a Rarighar Rajput landlord converted to Islam, belonged to the village of MandialT, 8 km south of Amritsar. He was appointed kotwdl of Amritsar by Zakariya Khan, the Mughal governor of Lahore (1726-45), after the death of Qazi `Abdur Rahman who had met his end
MATAB SINGH or Mahtab Singh (d. 1745). eighteenth century Sikh warrior and martyr, was born the son of Hara Singh, aJatt Sikh of Bharigu clan of the village of Mirarikot, 8 km north of Amritsar. He grew up amidst the most ruthless persecution Sikhs suffered under the later Mughals, and
MATHRA SINGH, DOCTOR (1883-1917), patriot and revolutionary, was born the son of Hari Singh, a Kohli Khatri, and Bhag Sudhi, at Dhudial in Pakistan. He attended the village primary school and passed his Matriculation examination from the Khalsa High School at Chakval. In 1901, he joined a pharmaceutical firm at
MATT DAS, BHAI (d. 1675), the martyr, was the son of Bhai Hira Mal, also called Hiranand, a Chhibbar Brahman of Kariala, now in Pakistan. His grandfather, Bhai Paraga, had embraced the Sikh faith in the time of Guru Hargobind and had taken part in battles with the Mughal forces.
MEDINI PRAKASH, ruler from 1684 to 1704 of Sirmur, a state situated along the river Yamuna in the Kayarda Dun valley of the Sivalik hills, was one among the hill chiefs who did not support Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur in his designs against Guru Gobind Singh. In April 1685,
MEGH RAJ (d. 1864), the third son of Misr Divan Chand, starting as a clerk in Gobindgarh Fort at Amritsar under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, became head of the treasury at Amritsar in 1816. He held this position until the Maharaja`s death in 1839 soon after which Prince Nau Nihal Singh
MELA SINGH, SANT (1784-1854), holy saint and preacher of the Sikh faith, was born in 1784 at Kotchari, a village in Bagh tahsil of the present Punchh district of Jammu and Kashmir. He was only eleven years of age when his father, BhaT Makkhan Singh, a pious Sikh convert from
METCALFE, SIR CHARLES THEOPHILUS (1785-1846), diplomat and provisional Governor General of India, son of Thomas Theophilus Matcalfc, a director of the East India Company, was born in Calcutta, on 30 January 1785. He started his career as a writer in the service of the East India Company. He was appointed
MEVA SINGH (d. 1915), a simple but religious minded peasant who was a reciter of the Guru Granth Sahib, came from the village of Lopoke, in Amritsar district. He migrated to Canada where he was an associate of Bhai Bhag Singh Bhikhivind and Balvant Singh Khurdpur, two prominent leaders of
MINTO, SIR GILBERT ELLIOT (1751-1814), Governor General of India (18071 S) son of Sir Gilbert Elliot, third baronet of Minto, was born of 23 April 1751. He was called to the bar at the Lincoln`s Inn in 1774 and in 1806 served as president of the Board of Control. Lord
MOHAN SINGH VAID, BHAI. (1881-1936), apothecary, writer, collector of books and social reformer, was born at Tarn Taran on Phagun sudil, 1937 Bk/7 March 1881, the youngest of the four sons of Bhai Jaimal Singh (1843-1919), who too was a void (practitioner of Ayurveda or Indian system of medicine) of
MOHAN SINGH, SARDAR BAHADUR (1897-1961), aesthete, philanthropist and privy counsellor, was born on 6 June 1897 at Rawalpindi in a family of note founded by Sadhu Singh (d. 1798), who under Sardar Milkha Singh Thehpuria, founder of present town of Rawalpindi (now in Pakistan), was entrusted with the duty of
MOTA SINGH, BHAI (1902-1921), one of the Nankana Sahib martyrs, was the son of Bhai Hari Singh and Mat Thakari, Ramdasia Sikhs, weavers by profession, originally of Bassi village in Hoshiarpur district, who had migrated for better living to Chakk No. 18 Bahoru in Sheikh upura district (now in Pakistan).
MOTI RAM, DIWAN (1770-1837), was the only son of Diwan Muhkam Chand, one of Maharaja Ranjil Singh`s most trusted army generals. Moll Ram officiated as the governor of the Jalandhar Doab during the absence of bis father on military expeditions. After the death of his father in 1814, he was
MOUTON, FRANCOIS HENRI (1804-1876), born at Montelimar (France) on 17 August 1804, joined the French army as a volunteer in 1823, becoming in 1827 a sublieutenant in the Royal Bodyguards. In 1835, he got promotion as captain. In 1838, he accompanied General Ventura, then on leave in France, to the
MUHKAM CHAND, DIWAN (1750-1814), a renowned Sikh army general of the early years of Maharaja Ranjit Singh`s reign, was born around AD 1750. Son of a small shopkeeper, Baisakhi Mall Khatri, of Kunjah, a village in Gujrat district, now in Pakistan, he trained as an accountant and served as a
MUIN ULMULK (d. 1753), shortened to Mir Mannu, was the Mughal governor of the Punjab from April 1748 until his death in November 1753. He took over charge of the province after he had defeated the Afghan invader, Ahmad Shah Durrani, in the battle fought at Manupur, near Sirhind on
MUKANDA, BHAI, was a devoted Sikh of the time of Guru Arjan. Once he, accompanied by Bhai Mula Beri and Bhai Tirath and Bhai Nihalu, a goldsmith, waited upon Guru Arjan. They asked a question : "0 True King, how is it that while exposition of the Sabda, or sacred
MUL CHAND, BHAI father in law of Guru Nanak, was a Chona Khatri, resident of Batala, who looked after the lands of the Randhava Jatts of the village of Pakkhokc in present day Gurdaspur district of the Punjab. He had a daughter of marriageable age named Sulakkhani whom he betrothed
MUL RAJ, DIWAN, governor of Hazara during Sikh times, was connected through family lies with Misr Beli Ram, an influential courtier. During the prime ministership of Raja Hira Singh (1843-44) when Misr Beli Ram was imprisoned, Diwan Mul Raj too was suspected of disloyalty towards the State. He was placed
MULA SINGH, BHAI (1880-1921), one of the Nankana Sahib martyrs, was the son of Bhai Jivan Singh and Mai Gulab Kaur of Valla village, in Amritsar district. He learnt Gurmukhi during his childhood and was also married young, but remained childless. He then went abroad to Singapore where he served
MULRAJ, DIWAN (1814-1851), son of Diwan Savan Mall, the governor of Multan, served as the kardar of Shuja`abad and Jharig during the lifetime of his father. He succeeded his father to the governorship of Multan after the latter`s death on 29 September 1844. The subah of Multan then included the
MURRAY, Dr, a British physician attached to 4th Native Infantry, who was in 1836 sent from Ludhiana to Lahore by the British for Maharaja Ranjit Singh`s treatment after he had suffered a stroke of paralysis. During his 8 months` stay in Lahore, Murray found it difficult to persuade the Maharaja
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