MACAULIFFE, MAX ARTHUR (1841-1913), English translator of the Sikh Scriptures and historian of Sikhism, was born on 10 September 1841 at Newcastle West, County Limerick, Ireland. He was educated at Newcastle School, Limerick, and at Springfield College and Queen\'s College, Galway. He received a broad humanistic education that allowed him
MACKESON, FREDERICK (1807-1853), son of William and Harriet Mackeson, was born on 28 September 1807, and educated at the King\'s School, Canterbury, and in France. In 1825, he joined the Bengal Native Infantry. In 1831, and for several years afterwards, his regiment was stationed at Ludhiana. In 1832, he was
MACNAGHTEN, SIR WILLIAM HAY (1793-1841), born in August 1793, was the son of Sir Francis Macnaghten. He was educated at Charter house and joined the service of the East India Company in 1809. He studied Hindustani, Persian and other Asiatic languages. His diplomatic career began towards the close of 1830,
MADAN NATH, head of a band of Kanphata yogis, called on Guru Gobind Singh as he was visiting Thanesar in 1702. As says Bhai Santokh Singh, Sri Gur Pratap Suraj Granth, the yogi was surprised to see Guru Gobind Singh in a warrior\'s dress and gave expression to his
MADAN SINGH, BHAI (d. 1705), one of the martyrs of Chamkaur (7 December 1705), was, according to local tradition popular in and around Bhagrana in Fatehgarh Sahib district of the Punjab, the son of Bhai Diala, a weaver of that village. Bhai Diala had received instruction from Guru Tegh Bahadur
MADDU, BHAI, a carpenter by trade, was a devoted Sikh of the time of Guru Arjan. According to Bhai Santokh Singh, Sri Gur Partap Suraj Granth, Bhai Maddu lived up to the time of Guru Hargobind and remained in attendance on him. He revelled in serving in the Guru
MADHO, BHAI. a Sodhi Khatri, was a learned Sikh of the time of Guru Arjan. The Guru assigned him to the valley of Kashmir to preach Guru Nanak\'s word. The Brahmans of Kashmir, as says Bhai Mani Singh, Sikhan di Bhagat Mala, objected to his use of Punjabi in
MADU, BHAI, a carpenter. His name has been included by Bhai Gurdas in his Varan, XI. 18. The name occurs in the roster of prominent Sikhs of the time of Guru Hargobind.
MAGGHAR SINGH, SANT (1890-1924). Sikh divine who attracted a local following, came of a Bhullar Jatt family of Ramgarh village, near Jagraon, in Ludhiana district of the Punjab. His grandfather had died fighting against the British in the battle of \'Alival (28 January 1846) during the first Anglo-Sikh war.
MAGH SINGH, BHAI (d. 1924), one of the martyrs of Jaito morcha, was the son of Bhai Sham Singh and Mai Dharmon, farmers of the village of Lande in Moga tahsil (sub-division) of the present Moga district. In his early youth Magh Singh had enlisted in the army and had
MAHA DEVI, MATA (d. 1645), also called Mata Marvahi after her ancestral caste-name, was the daughter of Bhai Dvara (also known as Daya Ram) and Mata Bhagan of the village of Mandiala on the right bank of the Ravi, 20 km southwest of Lahore. She was married to Guru
MAHADEV, BABA (1560-1605), the second son of Guru Ram Das (1534-81) and Mata Bhani, was born on 1 June 1560 at Goindval, in present-day Amritsar district of the Punjab. As he grew up, he displayed little interest in worldly affairs and remained occupied in meditation. According to Bhai Gurdas,
MAHAN SINGH (d. 1844), son of Data Ram, came to Lahore from Jammu at a very early age to seek his fortune in the Sikh capital. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who was struck by his skill and courage on a hunting expedition when Mahan Singh unassisted had killed a leopard
MAHAN SINGH (d. 1790), son of Charhat Singh of Sukkarchakkia misl, was young in years when his father died. During his minority, his mother, Mai Desan, carried on the administration, with the help of her brothers. As soon as he came of age, Mahan Singh embarked upon a career
MAHAN SINGH, BHAl (d. 1705), one of the martyrs of Muktsar, collectively called Chali Mukte, the Forty Liberated Ones. He, in addition to Mata (Mother) Bhago, was the only one among the wounded who had some life still left in him. As the Guru went across to visit the site
MAHARAJ SINGH BHAI (d. 1856), a saintly person turned revolutionary who led an anti-British movement in the Punjab after the first Anglo-Sikh war, was born Nihal Singh at the village of Rabbon, in Ludhiana district. He had a religious bent of mind and came under the influence of Bhai
MAHARI CHAND, one of the five brave sons of Bibi Viro, daughter of Guru Hargobind, Nanak VI, who, along with his brothers, took part in the battle of Bhangani (18 September 1688). In his poetical work Bachitra Natak, Guru Gobind Singh reserves a verse for Mahari Chand, who, "flying
MAHER JOHN, was a Eurasian musician who served as a drum-major in Maharaja Ranjit Singh\'s army.
MAHESHA, BHAI, or Bhai Mahesa, a rich and influential Dhir Khatri of Sultanpur Lodhi, in present day Kapurthala district of the Punjab, once waited upon Guru Amar Das and begged to be initiated a Sikh, The Guru, says Sarup Das Bhalla, Mahima Prakash, pointed out to him that to
MAHIMA, BHAI. Khahira Jatt of Khadur in Amritsar district, was a devoted Sikh contemporary of Guru Angad. According to Bhai Balevali Janam Sakhi, the Guru once stayed with him in his house. When the Guru desired someone to be sent for to transcribe in Gurmukhi characters Guru Nanak\'s horoscope
MAHINGA SINGH, BHAI (d. 1921), one of the Nankana Sahib martyrs, was born in a potter\'s family of Lahuke in Amritsar district. He along with his parents, Bhai Jhanda Singh and Mat Bhago, migrated to Chakk No 75 Lahuke in Lyallpur district when that area was colonized during the 1890\'s.
MAHITAB DEVI (d. 1839), known as Rani Katochan or Rani Gaddan, was daughter of Raja Sansar Chand Katoch of Kangra. She was married to Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1829 and had great influence over him. At Lahore she introduced the art of Phulkari embriodery, arranged marriages of orphan girls
MAHITAB KAUR (d. 1813), the first wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, was the daughter of Gurbakhsh Singh Kanhaiya and Sada Kaur. Sada Kaur persuaded her father-in-law, Jai Singh Kanhaiya, after her husband had been killed in a show of arms with Maharn Singh Sukkarchakkia, to betroth her daughter to
MAHITAB KAUR, daughter of Chaudhari Sujan Singh, an Atval Jatt of the village of Malla, in Gurdaspur district, was married to Maharaja Ranjit Singh about the year 1822 by the rites of chadar andazi, knotting the sheet cover. She survived the Maharaja and lived up to a ripe old
MAHITAB SINGH MAJITHIA (1811-1865), General in the Sikh army, son of Amar Singh Majithia (junior). Mahitab Singh started his career as a subahdar in the irregular Sikh cavalry of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. In 1831, he was promoted Colonel and posted as commandant of Sikh troops stationed at Amritsar. He
MAHITAB SINGH, MAHANT (1811-1871), founder Sri Mahant (head) of Sri Nirmal Panchaiti Akhara, at Patiala, was born in 1811 in a Jatt Sikh family of the village of Lehal Kalan, now in Sangrur district in the Punjab. He learnt to read Punjabi in his village and gained fluency in
MAI DAS, a Vaisnavite sadhu of the village of Narli, now in Amritsar district of the Punjab, embraced Sikh faith at the hands of Guru Amar Das. As a wandering sadhu, he once visited Goindval and desired to meet the Guru, but since he was unable to comply with
MAIA, BHAI, son of Bhai Khanu who, according to Bhai Gurdas, Varan, XI. 15, received instruction at the hands of Guru Angad.
MAIA, BHAI, a Lamb Khatri of Suhand, identified as Sirhind by Bhai Kahn Singh, Gurushabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh, was a devotee of Guru Hargobind. He regularly participated in the sangat and sang the holy hymns. According to Bhai Mani Singh, Sikhan di Bhagat Mala, he once asked the Guru,
MAILAGAR SINGH or Mailagar Singh, one of the Sikhs who rallied round Guru Gobind Singh during his travels in the Malva region after the battle of Chamkaur (7 December 1705), earned the Guru\'s appreciation for his spirit of contentment. According to Malva Des Ratan di Sakhi Pothi, as Guru
MAIMUN KHAN, commander of a troop of 100 Afghan soldiers in the service of Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708), fought valiantly against Said Khan who in 1703 attacked Anandpur with a strong Mughal force.
MAJLAS RAI, RAJA, a Brahman native of Lopoke in Amritsar district of the Punjab and a diwan or revenue minister at the court of Emperor Bahadur Shah I (1707-12), was a devotee of Guru Gobind Singh whom he frequently visited during journey to the Deccan in 1708. The Guru
MAKKHAN SHAH, son of Naik Dase Shah, was a wealthy trader of the Lubana clan. He hailed from the village of Tanda, in present day Muzaffarabad district of Jammu and Kashmir. He was a devout Sikh and had received Guru Har Rai in his home during the latter\'s visit
MAKKHAN SINGH, BHAI (d. 1863) was a granthi or officiant of the Darbar Sahib at Amritsar. When the British entered Lahore after the first Anglo-Sikh war in 1846, some of them, while visiting the holy shrine, would desecrate the precincts by entering with shoes on and otherwise annoy the
MALI SINGH (d. 1716), resident of the village of Salaudi near Sirhind, was in the service of Nawab Wazir Khan, the Mughal faujdar. Following his brother Ali Singh, he left his service and joined Banda Singh Bahadur\'s army. Mali Singh took part in several of Banda Singh\'s campaigns and
MALIA, BHAI, along with Bhai Saharu, accepted the Sikh faith at the hands of Guru Amar Das. Both were tailors by profession and belonged to the village of Dalla, in present-day Kapurthala district of the Punjab. According to Bhai Mani Singh, Sikhdan di Bhagat Mala, as Guru Amar Das
MALLAN BHAI, a native of Dalla, in present-day Kapurthala district of the Punjab, was a devoted Sikh of the time of Guru Amar Das. He waited on the Guru as he once visited his village. The Guru, says Bhai Mani Singh, Sikhan di Bhagat Mala, advised him to serve
MALO, BHAI, and Bhai Manga, both named by Bhai Gurdas, Varan, XI. 13, among the notable Sikhs of Guru Nanak, were musicians who once sought audience of the Guru and begged him to unfold to them the tapas or devotion most beneficial for them. Guru Nanak, says Bhai Mani
MALUK DAS was a long-lived Vaisnava saint who spanned the reigns of the Mughal emperors from Akbar to Aurangzib. He was widely venerated and counted among his admirers and followers, Muslims as well as Hindus. He lived at Kara, on the right bank of the River Ganga, in Allahabad
MALUK SINGH converted to the Kuka or Namdhari faith in 1864. With a band of 50 of his companions, he set up what he called a Kuka government in his village, Tharajvala, in Firozpur district, by declaring British rule as having ended. He was arrested and imprisoned for this.
MAN CHAND, son of Khan Chand. resident of Kabul in Afghanistan, became a devotee of Guru Nanak. According to Bala Janam Sakhi, once Guru Nanak accompanied by Bhai Bala went to Kabul especially to meet Man Chand whom he sent for through a local Pathan. Man Chand, who had
MAN MOHAN SINGH (1906-1942), the first Sikh aviator and the first Indian to fly solo from England to India, was born at Rawalpindi, now in Pakistan, in September 1906, the son of Dr Makkhan Singh, a recipient of the Kaisari Hind medal from the government for his distinguished public
MAN SINGH, JUSTICE (1887-1949), known as Bhai Man Singh up to his thirties, was born in 1887 at Ambala, now in Haryana, the youngest of the three sons of Nand Singh who had fought against the British in the second AngloSikh war (1849) and had then worked under them
MAN SINGH, RISALDAR MAJOR (d. 1892), son of Deva Singh of Rariala, in Gujrariwala district, now in Pakistan, was a soldier in Maharaja Ranjit Singh`s army." He was attached to Raja Suchct Singh`s force. He took part in the capture of Peshawar (1834) and then entered Raja Hira Singh`s
MAN SINGH. BHAI (d. 1708), a warrior in Guru Gobind Singh`s retinue, was, according to Seva Singh, Shahid Bilas Bhai Mani Singh, the son of Mal Das of Alipur in Muzaffargarh district (now in Pakistan) and a brother of Bhai Mani Ram whose five sons were among the first
MANA SINGH MAN (d. 1807), son of Sarja Singh Man, a minor misldar and a feudatory sardar of Mahan Singh Sukkarchakkia who held jagirs in Pindori Kalan and Pindori Khurd.
MANAK CHAND JIVARA, a Patharia Khatri of the village of Vairoval, now in Amritsar district of the Punjab, was a devoted Sikh of the time of Guru Amar Das. He lovingly contributed the labour of his hands to digging the Baoli, or open well with steps going down to
MANAK CHAND, BHAI, received initiation at the hands of Guru Ram Das. He followed the path of selfless service and attained liberation and spiritual bliss. See Bhai Gurdas, Varan, XI. 17. .
MANGAL SINGH, a Risaldar in the erstwhile princely state of Patiala, was born in 1842, the son of jagirdar Hira Singh. He was arrested in 1872 for his alleged involvement in the attack by the Kukas on the butchers of Malerkotia, and was imprisoned at Allahabad.
MANGAL SINGH (d. 1864), manager of Prince Kharak Singh`s estates in Sikh times, came of a Sandhu family of the village of Sirarivali, in Sialkot district, which traced its ancestry to one Husain who founded, at the beginning of sixteenth century, Hasanvala, a village in Gujrariwala district. Mangal Singh`s
MANGAL SINGH KIRPAN BAHADUR, BHAI (1895-1921), one of the Nankana Sahib martyrs was born in 1895, the son of Bhai Ratia and Mat Hukmi in the village of Uddokc, in Gurdaspur district. He lost both of his parents while yet a small child, and grew up in very adverse circumstances
MANGAL SINGH RAMGARHIA (1800-1879), manager of the Golden Temple at Amritsar for 17 years from 1862 till his death in 1879, was the son of Divan Singh Ramgarhia, a nephew of the famous Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia. During his younger days, Mangal Singh remained in attendance on Maharaja Ranjit
MANGAL SINGH, SARDAR (1892-1987), journalist, politician and parliamentarian, long had the epithet `Akali` attached to his name for his prominence in Akali affairs. He was born on 6 June 1892 at the village of Gil), near Ludhiana, the son of Zaildar Kapur Singh, who had been granted by the
MANGINA, SETH, a rich businessman of Muxarig in Lahore, was, according to Bhai Man! Singh, Sikhan di Bhagat Maid, a contemporary of Guru Arjan. He was one of the first residents of Muzarig who, along with their families, accepted the Sikh teaching. See Bhai Gurdas, Varan, XI. 25.
MANGLAN, a slave girl in the service of Maharani Jind Kaur who gained considerable influence in state affairs during the latter`s regency (1844-46). She was born about 1816 in a village near Kangra. Her father Piru, a water bearer, lived in extremely narrow circumstances. She was sold at the
MANI RAM, BHAI (1644-1734), from a devoted Sikh family of Pramar Rajputs, was, according to Seva Singh, Shahid Bilds (Bhal Mani Singh), the third of the twelve sons of Naik MaT Das and his wife, Madhari Bai, of `Alipur village in Muzaffargarh district. His grandfather, Ballu, had laid down
MANI SINGH, BHAI (d. 1737), scholar and martyr, came, according to Kesar Singh Chhibbar, his contemporary, of a Kamboj family, and according to some later chroniclers, following Giani Gian Singh, Panth Prakash, of a DullatJatt family of Kamboval village (now extinct), near Sunam (30Â°7`N, 75"48`E), in Sarigrur district of
MANIK, BHAI, of village Maddar in present day Sheikh upura district of Pakistan, received initiation as a Sikh at the hands of Guru Amar Das. When Guru Hargobind visited this village on his way back from Kashmir in 1620, Manik served him with devotion and narrated to him the
MANJH BHAI, a well to do Rajput of Doaba country, converted a Sikh and earned repute for his piety, selfless service and complete surrender to the Guru`s will. His real name was Tiratha and Manjh was his clan name. He had been a follower of Sultan Sakhi Sarwar, a
MANNA SINGH MAJITHIA (d. 1802), a minor commander and jagirdar in Sikh times. He served the Sukkarchakkia family under Charhat Singh and Mahari Singh in various expeditions. From Mahan Singh, he received a jagir in ]ehlum district. He took part in the early campaigns of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and
MANOHAR DAS, a nineteenth century saint of Sangat Sahib Ke sect of the Udasi Sikhs, usually stayed at Kankhal, near Haridvar, where he collaborated with some other sadhus under the leadership of Santokh Das to establish a separate Udasi body called Sri Gur Naya Akhara Udasin, popularly known as
MANOHAR DAS. BHAI, a great grandson of Guru Amar Das and a distant cousin of Guru Hargobind, was a devoted Sikh, known for his piety and humility. He had been brought up by Guru Arjan himself. As he grew up, he started performing kirtan at Gurdwara Chaubara Sahib and
MANSA DEVI, MATA (d. 1569), wife of Guru Amar Das (1479-1574), was the daughter of Bhai Dev Chand, a Bahil Khatri of Sankhaira, a small town in Sialkot district (now in Pakistan). Her marriage to (Guru) Amar Das took place on 11 Magh 1559 Bk/ 8 January 1503, but
MANSUKH was, according to Puratan Janam Sakhi, a merchant of Lahore who, learning about Guru Nanak from one of his customers Bhai Bhagirath, travelled with him to Sultanpur. There he remained in attendance on the Guru for three years and learnt, as says the Janam Sakhi, to recite bdni,
MARDANA, BHAI (1459-1534), Guru Nanak`s longtime Muslim companion throughout his extensive journeys across the country and abroad, was born the son of a Mirasi (a caste of hereditary minstrels and genealogists) couple, Badra and Lakkho, of Talvandi Rai Bhoe, now Nankana Sahib, in Shcikhupura district of Pakistan. Guru Nanak
MARTINDALE, an AngloIndian who is mentioned by Alexander Gardner in his Ranjit Singh and His White Officers as being in the infantry service of the Sikhs. He was the son of General Martindale, an officer who figured prominently in the Gurkhawar of 1814, his mother being Indian. Prior to
MASSE KHAN RANGHAR (d. 1740), a Rarighar Rajput landlord converted to Islam, belonged to the village of MandialT, 8 km south of Amritsar. He was appointed kotwdl of Amritsar by Zakariya Khan, the Mughal governor of Lahore (1726-45), after the death of Qazi `Abdur Rahman who had met his end
MATAB SINGH or Mahtab Singh (d. 1745). eighteenth century Sikh warrior and martyr, was born the son of Hara Singh, aJatt Sikh of Bharigu clan of the village of Mirarikot, 8 km north of Amritsar. He grew up amidst the most ruthless persecution Sikhs suffered under the later Mughals, and
MATABAR SINGH, a Gurkha general who in 1838 was deputed by the court of Nepal to Lahore to seek an alliance against the British. When Matabar Singh reached Ludhiana, he was detained by the British agent. However, on a representation made by the Maharaja`s government he was permitted to
MATHO MURARI, joint name of a couple Matho and her husband, Murari, both blessed by Guru Amar Das. Murari`s real name was Prema. He was a native of the village of Khai, now in Lahore district of West Punjab (Pakistan). Orphaned in early childhood and afflicted by leprosy, Prema
MATHRA DAS, BHAI, of Agra, was a pious Sikh of the lime of Guru Arjan. Although a poor labourer, the door of his humble house was always open for visiting Sikhs. The Guru, records Bhai Man! Singh, Sikhdn di Bhagat Maid, was much impressed by his readiness to serve
MATHRA SINGH, DOCTOR (1883-1917), patriot and revolutionary, was born the son of Hari Singh, a Kohli Khatri, and Bhag Sudhi, at Dhudial in Pakistan. He attended the village primary school and passed his Matriculation examination from the Khalsa High School at Chakval. In 1901, he joined a pharmaceutical firm at
MATT DAS, BHAI (d. 1675), the martyr, was the son of Bhai Hira Mal, also called Hiranand, a Chhibbar Brahman of Kariala, now in Pakistan. His grandfather, Bhai Paraga, had embraced the Sikh faith in the time of Guru Hargobind and had taken part in battles with the Mughal forces.
MAYYA SINGH, a Saini Sikh of Naushahra in Amritsar district of the Punjab and a horseman of the Sikh army, fought in the battle of Ramnagar on 22 November 1848, and joined thereafter the volunteer corps of Bhai Maharaj Singh (d. 1856), leader of the popular revolt against the
MAYYA SINGH, BHAI (1862-1928). spelt as Maya Singh in contemporary English writings, was a leading figure in the Singh Sabha awakening. He was born in 1862. Little is known about his early life, except that after his school years he joined the railways at Lahore as a clerk. There
MAYYA, BHAI, a Khullar Khatri, is mentioned among the prominent Sikhs of the time of Guru Ram Das. According to Bhai Mani Singh, Sikhdn di Bhagat Maid, Bhai Mayya along with Bhai Japa and Bhai Nayya, both of the Khullar clan, and Bhai Tulsa, a Vohra Khatri, once waited
MAZHAR ALI, an artillery officer in Sikh times who commanded the horse battery of Maharaja Ranjit Singh`s Topkhanai Khas. For a time, he served under General Ghaus Khan with command of a battery of 10 light guns. He took part in the Attock operations in 1813 under the command
MEDINI PRAKASH, ruler from 1684 to 1704 of Sirmur, a state situated along the river Yamuna in the Kayarda Dun valley of the Sivalik hills, was one among the hill chiefs who did not support Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur in his designs against Guru Gobind Singh. In April 1685,
MEGH RAJ (d. 1864), the third son of Misr Divan Chand, starting as a clerk in Gobindgarh Fort at Amritsar under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, became head of the treasury at Amritsar in 1816. He held this position until the Maharaja`s death in 1839 soon after which Prince Nau Nihal Singh
MEHAR SINGH NIRMALA, a Sandhu Jatt belonging to the Nishananvali misi, became famous by display of bravery and courage in the latter half of the eighteenth century. He was one of the persons who figured in the partition of Sirhind territory after the town was captured by Sikhs in
Meharban, Sodhi, original name Manohardas, son of Prithichand, the elder brother of Guru Arjan Dev (the fifth Guru of the Sikhs), wrote poetry as well as prose, but his prominent work is Janam sakhi Guru Nanak Dev (Story of the nativity of Guru Nanak, the first Guru of the
Mehboob, Harinder Singh was born in Chakk, in Lyallpur district of present-day Pakistan in 1937 and took his Master\'s degree in English and Punjabi. He worked as a lecturer in Khalsa College, Garhdiwara, Punjab. He began writing essays for magazines in the early sixties. Among his significant publications is
MEHRA, BHAI, a hillman, was a devotee of Guru Arjan. The name also figures in Bhai Gurdas, Varan, XI. 23
MEHTAB SINGH, SARDAR BAHADUR (1879-1938), lawyer and legislator who became closely associated with the Gurdwara Reform movement, was born in 1879 at the village of Hadali, in Shahpur district, now in Pakistan, to Hazur Singh and Karam Kaur. His father died when he was barely four years old. Mehtab
MELA SINGH, SANT (1784-1854), holy saint and preacher of the Sikh faith, was born in 1784 at Kotchari, a village in Bagh tahsil of the present Punchh district of Jammu and Kashmir. He was only eleven years of age when his father, BhaT Makkhan Singh, a pious Sikh convert from
METCALFE, SIR CHARLES THEOPHILUS (1785-1846), diplomat and provisional Governor General of India, son of Thomas Theophilus Matcalfc, a director of the East India Company, was born in Calcutta, on 30 January 1785. He started his career as a writer in the service of the East India Company. He was appointed
METUI, a Russian soldier of fortune, described to be a captain in one of the regiments of the Sikh army in 1841 on a monthly salary of Rs 300. According to one account, he had married a Kashmiri woman and had a daughter by her and was a resident
MEVA SINGH (d. 1915), a simple but religious minded peasant who was a reciter of the Guru Granth Sahib, came from the village of Lopoke, in Amritsar district. He migrated to Canada where he was an associate of Bhai Bhag Singh Bhikhivind and Balvant Singh Khurdpur, two prominent leaders of
MEVA SINGH MAJITHIA, an artillery commander in the Sikh army, whose regiment, according to the Lahore diarist Sohan Lal Sun, was called TopkhanaiMeva Singh, consisting of 10 light and 10 field guns and 1,014 men. In December 1844, Meva Singh was nominated a member of the council constituted by
MEVIUS, also recorded as Frank Ernest Mevins, was a Prussian who came to the Punjab in March 1827 and was employed in the Sikh army in the rank of a colonel. According to the Khalsa Darbar records, Mevius had to sign a pledge that he would, "during his period
MIAN KHIMA, Maharaja Duleep Singh`s favorite Muhammadan attendant who had served him since his childhood. He came with the Maharaja to Fatehgarh after the latter was dethroned and exiled from Lahore by the British in 1849. At Fatehgarh he was replaced by Bhajan Lal, an English educated young Brahman
MIAN MITTHA, a Muslim holyman living in a village which came to be called Kotia Miari Mittha in the present Sialkot district of Pakistan Punjab, met Guru Nanak as the latter was passing through his village. The two held a discourse. According to Purdtan Janam Sdkhi, Miari Mittha observed
MIHAN SINGH (d. 1841), Sikh governor of Kashmir from 1834 to 1841. He had taken part in numerous military operations under Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his successors. As governor of Kashmir, he ordered a free assessment of the land in the province. He also had his TarikhiKashmir, which was
MIHAN, BHAI, founder of the Mihanshahi or Mihansahibi sect of Udasi sadhus, was a Sikh contemporary of the eighth, ninth and the tenth Gurus. His real name was Ramdev. His father, Nand Lal Sohna, had been a disciple of two Muslim devotees of Guru Hargobind, Khwaja and Jani, and
MIHARBAN, (1581-1640), the popular name of Manohar Das, who was the grandson of Guru Ram Das, fourth in spiritual descent from Guru Nanak, and son of Prithi Chand, the elder brother of Guru Arjan, Nanak V. Born on 9 January 1581, Miharban spent his early years in the company
MIHRA, BHAI, a resident of Bakala, now called Baba Bakala in Amritsar district of the Punjab, was a devoted Sikh of the time of Guru Hargobind. According to Gurbilds Chhevin Pdtshdhi, he built a new house and took avow not to live in it until the Guru had once
MILKHA SINGH THEHPURIA (d. 1804), a powerful Sikh chief during the latter half of the eighteenth century, who, abandoning his native place, Kaleke, near Kasur, founded the village of Thehpur in Lahore district and took possession of a number of villages in its vicinity and in Gujrat and Gujrariwala
MINTO, SIR GILBERT ELLIOT (1751-1814), Governor General of India (18071 S) son of Sir Gilbert Elliot, third baronet of Minto, was born of 23 April 1751. He was called to the bar at the Lincoln`s Inn in 1774 and in 1806 served as president of the Board of Control. Lord
MIRI SINGH was son of Kahn Singh and grandson of Baba Binod Singh, who had under the orders of Guru Gobind Singh accompanied Banda Singh Bahadur from Nanded, in the South, to the Punjab in 1708 along with three other disciples. Miri Singh took part in several of Banda
MIRZA BEG, a Mughal official who, in 1696. accompanied Prince Mu`azzam (later Emperor Bahadur Shah of Delhi), sent by Emperor Aurangzib to settle affairs in the Punjab. The Prince stationed himself in Lahore and sent Mirza Beg towards the Sivalik hills. Mirza Beg brought the hill rajas to submission.
MIRZA SINGH (d. 1787),wasson of Chuhar Singh, a Shergil Jatt. One of his ancestors, Chaudhari Sarvani, had founded the village of Naushera, also known as Raipur Sarvani, during the reign of Emperor Shah Jahari and was permitted to hold it rent free as remuneration for collecting the revenue of
Misha, Sohan Singh was born at village Bhent in district Kapurthala (Punjab) in a middle class family, Misha took an M.A. in English literature from Punjabi University in 1957. He taught English literature at National College, Sathiala, from 1957 to 1966 and joined All India Radio, Jalandhar as Producer,
MIT SINGH PADHANIA (d. 1814), soldier, commander and jdgirddr under Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He was the son of Sukkha Singh Padhama, and entered the service of the Sukkarchakkia mislunder Mahari Singh, who assigned to him a^agirworth Rs 12,000 annually. In 1804, in Ranjit Singh`s reign, he had command of
MOHAN SINGH NAGOKE, JATHEDAR (1898-1969), Akali politician and Jathedar of the Akal Takht from 1935 to 1948, was born at the village of Nagoke, in Amritsar district, on 25 December 1989. His father, Tahil Singh, was a farmer of modest means, one of whose ancestors had been a soldier
MOHAN SINGH TUR, JATHEDAR (1915-1979), cminest Akali politician, was born at village Tur in Tarn Taran tahsil of Amritsar in 1915, the son of Jagat Singh, an Akali activist of the Akali Lahir (Gurdwara Reform movement) of the early 1920`s and a member of the first Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak
MOHAN SINGH VAID, BHAI. (1881-1936), apothecary, writer, collector of books and social reformer, was born at Tarn Taran on Phagun sudil, 1937 Bk/7 March 1881, the youngest of the four sons of Bhai Jaimal Singh (1843-1919), who too was a void (practitioner of Ayurveda or Indian system of medicine) of
MOHAN SINGH, GENERAL (1909-1989), famous for his part in the Indian National Army for the liberation of India from British rule, in which he held the rank of a general, was born the only son of Tara Singh and Hukam Kaur, a peasant couple of Ugoke village, near Sialkot
MOHAN SINGH, SARDAR BAHADUR (1897-1961), aesthete, philanthropist and privy counsellor, was born on 6 June 1897 at Rawalpindi in a family of note founded by Sadhu Singh (d. 1798), who under Sardar Milkha Singh Thehpuria, founder of present town of Rawalpindi (now in Pakistan), was entrusted with the duty of
MOHAN, BABA (b. 1536), the elder son of Guru Amar Das, was born to Mata Mansa Devi at Basarke Gillan, near Amrtisar, in 1536. He was of a taciturn disposition and most of the time kept to his room in Goindval absorbed in study and contemplation. He had in
MOHAN, BHAI, a Mahita Khatri of the village of Dalla, in present day Kapurthala district of the Punjab, was a devoted Sikh of the time of Guru Amar Das. His name occurs in Bhai Mani Singh`s Sikhdn di Bhagat Maid. See, also, Bhai Gurdas, Varan, XI. 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.
MOHAR SINGH (d. 1785), a prominent leader of the Nishananvali chieftaincy, was the eldest of the three sons of Lal Singh. He added Ambala and Zira to the territories he had inherited and soon became an influential figure among the cis Sutlej chiefs. In September 1779, he at Thanesar
MOHINDER SINGH, MAHARAJA (1852-1876), was born at Patiala on 16 September 1852, the son of Maharaja Narinder Singh. He ascended the Patiala throne on 29 January 1862 at the age of ten. The young Maharaja was fairly well educated and enlightened. He received good all round education and was
MOHRA, a Brahman of Wazirabad in Gujranwala district (now in Pakistan Punjab), was the brother of Prema involved in the Prema conspiracy case. Both brothers had earlier served under the Dogra raja, Gulab Singh. After the arrest of his brother in May 1847, Mohra joined Bhal Maharaj Singh, a
MOHRI, BABA (b. 1539), the younger son of Guru Amar Das, Nanak III, was born in 1539 to Mata Mansa Devi at Basarke Gillan, in Amritsar district of the Punjab. Unlike his elder brother, Mohan, who lived a retired life, Mohri was of a more active temperament and spent
MORAN, a Muhammadan dancing girl of Lahore whom Maharaja Ranjit Singh is said to have married in 1802. She was a woman of uncommon beauty and attracted the Maharaja`s notice at a nautch party set up to mark the birth of his son and heir, Kharak Singh. Ranjit Singh
MOTA SINGH, BHAI (1902-1921), one of the Nankana Sahib martyrs, was the son of Bhai Hari Singh and Mat Thakari, Ramdasia Sikhs, weavers by profession, originally of Bassi village in Hoshiarpur district, who had migrated for better living to Chakk No. 18 Bahoru in Sheikh upura district (now in Pakistan).
MOTA SINGH, MASTER (1888-1960), patriot and revolutionary, was born the son of Gopal Singh on 28 February 1888 at Patara, a village 7 km east of Jalandhar. His grandfather, Sahib Singh, was a soldier in the Sikh army and had fought against the British. After passing the matriculation examination,
MOTA SINGH, SARDAR BAHADUR (b. 1814), son of Mul Raj (d. 1819), entered the service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1832, and was placed in the battalion of Col. Van Cortlandt. In 1837, he received a command in the Calcuttavala Battalion, but, in 1842, was replaced under Col. Van
MOTI RAM, DIWAN (1770-1837), was the only son of Diwan Muhkam Chand, one of Maharaja Ranjil Singh`s most trusted army generals. Moll Ram officiated as the governor of the Jalandhar Doab during the absence of bis father on military expeditions. After the death of his father in 1814, he was
MOUTON, FRANCOIS HENRI (1804-1876), born at Montelimar (France) on 17 August 1804, joined the French army as a volunteer in 1823, becoming in 1827 a sublieutenant in the Royal Bodyguards. In 1835, he got promotion as captain. In 1838, he accompanied General Ventura, then on leave in France, to the
MTAN MIR, HAZRAT (1550-1635), well known Sufi saint of the Qadiriyah order, was a contemporary of Guru Arjan (1563-1606) and Guru Hargobind (1595-1644). His real name was Shaikh Mir Muhammad. He was born the son of Qazi Sayandanah (Sain Datta to some chroniclers) bin Qazi Qalandar Faruqi in 957
MUHKAM CHAND, DIWAN (1750-1814), a renowned Sikh army general of the early years of Maharaja Ranjit Singh`s reign, was born around AD 1750. Son of a small shopkeeper, Baisakhi Mall Khatri, of Kunjah, a village in Gujrat district, now in Pakistan, he trained as an accountant and served as a
MUHKAM SINGH, BHAI (1663-1705). born Muhkam Chand, one of the Panj Piare or the Five Beloved of honoured memory in the Sikh tradition, was the son of TIrath Chand, a cloth printer of Dvaraka in Gujarat. About the year 1685, he came to Anandpur, then the seat of Guru
MUIN ULMULK (d. 1753), shortened to Mir Mannu, was the Mughal governor of the Punjab from April 1748 until his death in November 1753. He took over charge of the province after he had defeated the Afghan invader, Ahmad Shah Durrani, in the battle fought at Manupur, near Sirhind on
MUKANDA, BHAI, was a devoted Sikh of the time of Guru Arjan. Once he, accompanied by Bhai Mula Beri and Bhai Tirath and Bhai Nihalu, a goldsmith, waited upon Guru Arjan. They asked a question : "0 True King, how is it that while exposition of the Sabda, or sacred
MUL CHAND, BHAI father in law of Guru Nanak, was a Chona Khatri, resident of Batala, who looked after the lands of the Randhava Jatts of the village of Pakkhokc in present day Gurdaspur district of the Punjab. He had a daughter of marriageable age named Sulakkhani whom he betrothed
MUL RAJ, DIWAN, governor of Hazara during Sikh times, was connected through family lies with Misr Beli Ram, an influential courtier. During the prime ministership of Raja Hira Singh (1843-44) when Misr Beli Ram was imprisoned, Diwan Mul Raj too was suspected of disloyalty towards the State. He was placed
MUL SINGH GARMULA, BHAI (1846-1945), religious preacher and reformist, was the son of Jodh Singh, a well to do Virk Jatt of the village of Garmula Virkan in Gujranwala (later in Sheikhupura) district of the Punjab, now in Pakistan. He learnt Punjabi and Sikh religious texts and history at
MUL SINGH, RAI, a Khatri Sikh of Gujranwala district, was a trusted servant of Raja Tej Singh, commander in chief of the Khalsa army during the first Anglo Sikh war (1845-46). Tej Singh died in 1862 leaving behind a large estate and a minor son, (later Raja) Harbans Singh.
MULA was, according to a tradition recorded by Bhai Santokh Singh, Sn Gur Ndnak Prakash, a resident of Sialkot who became a devotee of Guru Nanak. As Guru Nanak once visited the city, he sent Mardana to purchase one pice worth of truth and one pice worth of falsehood.
MULA KIR, a Khatri of Kir sub caste mentioned among Guru Nanak`s devoted Sikhs by Bhai Gurdas, Varan, XI. 13. As Mula one day appeared before the Guru to seek instruction, he was told to resort to the sabda, work honestly for his living and serve the Sikhs. He
MULA SINGH, BHAI (1880-1921), one of the Nankana Sahib martyrs, was the son of Bhai Jivan Singh and Mai Gulab Kaur of Valla village, in Amritsar district. He learnt Gurmukhi during his childhood and was also married young, but remained childless. He then went abroad to Singapore where he served
MULA, BHAI, a Kapur Khatri, was a devoted Sikh of the time of Guru Arjan. His name is included among the noted disciples of the Gurus in Bhai Mani Singh, Sikhdn di Bhagaf Maid. See, also, Bhai Gurdas, Varan, XI. 20. MULA, BHAI, a Dhavan Khatri, was a devoted
MULRAJ, DIWAN (1814-1851), son of Diwan Savan Mall, the governor of Multan, served as the kardar of Shuja`abad and Jharig during the lifetime of his father. He succeeded his father to the governorship of Multan after the latter`s death on 29 September 1844. The subah of Multan then included the
MULTANA SINGH, KANVAR (1819-1846), son of Ranjit Singh, was born in 1819 to Ratan Kaur whom the Maharaja had married in 1811 after the conquest of Gujrat. He was given a small jagir in Amritsar district. He was married to Chand Kaur from whom he had three sons, Kishan
MUMTAZ, according to Sarup Singh Kaushish, Guru kian Sakhian, was the daughter of Nihang Khan, Muslim chief of Kotla. Nihang Khan near Ropar. She served the Sikh warrior Bhai Bachittar Singh who, severely wounded in a skirmish after the evacuation of Anandpur in December 1705, had been brought to
MUNSHA SINGH DUKHI (1890-1971), poet and revolutionary, was born the son of Subedar Nihal Singh on 1 July 1890 at Jandiala, in Jalandhar district of the Punjab. He had little formal education, but had acquired a good working knowledge of English, Urdu, Bengali, and Hindi. In 1908, he migrated
MURARI, BHAI, an Anand Khatri, who accepted Sikhism at the hands of Guru Arjan. The Guru taught him to practise ndm, i.e. repeat the Divine Name, and to serve others. The name figures in Bhai Gurdas, Varan, XI. 27.
MURARI, BHAI, a Dhaun Khatri of Rohtas, now in Pakistan, was a devoted Sikh of the time of Guru Arjan. He, as says Bhai Mani Singh, Sikhan di Bhagat Maid, once came to see Guru Arjan and said, "Lord, we regularly recite the sacred hymns and we reflect upon
MURRAY, Dr, a British physician attached to 4th Native Infantry, who was in 1836 sent from Ludhiana to Lahore by the British for Maharaja Ranjit Singh`s treatment after he had suffered a stroke of paralysis. During his 8 months` stay in Lahore, Murray found it difficult to persuade the Maharaja
MUSAN, BHAI, son of Bhai Samman of Shahbazpur, in the present day Amriisar district of the Punjab, was, like his father, a devoted Sikh of the time of Guru Arjan. The Guru Granth Sahib contains a composition entitled Chaubole by Guru Arjan in which several couplets are addressed to
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