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Social and voluntary organisations (31)
Social and voluntary organisations
AHANKAR (hankar as it is commonly pronounced in Punjabi) is a compound of Sanskrit aham (I) and kar (\'maker\') and means I-maker, i.e. what individuates the person as I. It stands for egotism, egoism, self conceit, self centredness, vanity or simply pride. Other synonyms used in the sacred texts of the Sikhs are man, abhiman, garab, guman, ahang, ahammeu, ahambudh, haumai and khudi. Pride is regarded as an undesirable trait in all ethical systems; it is counted among the seven deadly sins in the religious literature of the West.
Social and voluntary organisations
AHIMSA. The term ahimsa is formed by adding the negative prefix a to the word himsa which is derived from the Sanskrit root \'han\', i.e. \'to kill\', \'to harm\', or \'to injure\', and means not killing, not harming, not injuring. The commonly used English equivalent \'non-violence\' is inadequate as it seems to give a false impression that ahimsa is just a negative virtue. Ahimsa is not mere abstention from the use of force, not just abstention from killing and injuring; it also implies the positive virtues of compassion and benevolence because not killing and not injuring a living being implicitly amounts to protecting and preserving it and treating it with mercy.
Social and voluntary organisations
ASCETICISM, derived from the Greek word askesis, connotes the `training` or `exercise` of the body and the mind. Asceticism or ascetic practices belong to the domain of religious culture, and fasts, pilgrimages, ablutions, purificatory rituals, vigils, abstinence from certain foods and drinks, primitive and strange dress, nudity, uncut hair, tonsure. shaving the head, circumcision, caved welling, silence, meditation, vegetarianism, celibacy, virginity, inflicting pain upon oneself by whips and chains, mutilation, begging alms, owning no wealth or possessions, forbearance and patience, equanimity or impartiality towards friends and foes, eradication of desires and passions, treating the body as something evil or treating human life as a means of achieving ultimate release or union with God all these are subsumed under ascetic practices.
Social and voluntary organisations
ANHAD/ANHAT BANI or SHABD :A sound that is unending and knows no limits. Audible life current originating from the Divine Will, endlessly carrying on the work of creating and sustaining the universe; interchangeably used with Anhat meaning \'Unstruck\', as it it automatic and not instrumental. It also means sound not produced by physical concussion; the mystic melody or music believed to be heard by the Yogis (persons of high spiritual attainment) in a state of ecstasy or super conciousness.
Social and voluntary organisations
BHAKTI AND SIKHISM. The word bhakti is derived from Skt. bhaj, meaning to serve, honour, revere, love and adore. In the religious idiom, it is attachment or fervent devotion to God and is defined as "that particular affection which is generated by the knowledge of the attributes of the Adorable One." The concept is traceable to the Vedas where its intimations are audible in the hymns addressed to deities such as Varuna, Savitra and Usha.
Social and voluntary organisations
BOLE SO NIHAL, SATI SRI ARAL is the Sikh slogan or jaikara (lit. shout of victory.triumph or exultation). It is divided in two parts or phrases. The first, bole so nihal orjo bole so nihal, is a statement meaning "whoever utters (the phrase following) shall be happy, shall be fulfilled," and the second part sati snakaJ (Eternal is the Holy/ Great Timeless Lord). This Jaikara, first popularized by Guru Gobind Singh, Nanak X, has become, besides being a popular mode of expressing ebullient religious fervour or a mood of joy and celebration, an integral part of Sikh liturgy and is shouted at the end of ardas or prayer, said in sangat or holy congregation.
Social and voluntary organisations
BRAHMGIANI (Skt. brahmajnanin), lit. the knower of Brahman or one possessing the knowledge of Brahman. The knowledge (giana, jnana) of the Universal Spirit (Brahman) consists not in the mere recognition of His existence, but in a continuous consciousness about HimHis realization in the heart or rather the realization of a total identity of the individual soul (atman) with that Universal Soul (Brahman), which makes the former transcend joy and sorrow and life and death.
Social and voluntary organisations
BUDDHI or buddhi (from Sanskrit budh to wake up, be awake, to perceive, learn) is the intellectual aspect of mind (antahkarana) whose other aspects man and haumai are intertwined with it in close interrelationship. Its nearest English equivalent may be intellect. Man (Sanskrit manas) as the receptacle of sense impressions from sense organs, organizes them into precepts, yet it has doubt or indetermination about them. Buddhi defines and ascertains them and brings about definite and determinate cognition.
Social and voluntary organisations
CHARHDI KALA, a subtly composite concept, commonly translated as "high morale" or "high spirit", signifies in the Sikh tradition, to which the usage is peculiar and native, a great deal more. It stands for a perennially blossoming, unwilling spirit, a perpetual state of certitude resting on unwavering belief in Divine justice. It is that everlasting spirit of bravery which makes light of all hardships and handicaps a spirit that will prompt one who had nothing better to eat than a mouthful of gram to say that he was eating almonds, and spirit which would lead one to describe death as an expedition to the next world, a man with an empty stomach declaring himself to have gone mad with prosperity.
Social and voluntary organisations
DEG TEGH FATEH, a Sikh saying which literally means victory (fateh) to kettle (deg) and sword (tegh). All the three words have been taken from Persian which was the State language in the formative period of Sikhism. The word deg, i.e. a large sized kettle or cauldron having a wide mouth, which in the Muslim Sufi tradition signified charitable distribution of cooked food, also called langar, has here acquired an expanded meaning.

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