PANJ MUKTE, lit. five (panj) liberated ones (mukte), is how a batch of five Sikhs, who according to Bhai Daya Singh`s Rahitndmd, were the first after the Panj Piare to receive the rites of Khalsa initiation at the hands of Guru Gobind Singh on the historic Baisakhi day of AD
PANJ PIARE (lit. the five beloved), name given to the five Sikhs, Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Dharam Singh, Bhai Himmat Singh, Bhai Muhkam Singh and Bhai Sahib Singh, who were so designated by Guru Gobind Singh at the historic divan at Anandpur Sahib on 30 March 1699 and who formed
PANOPLY. To have established precise standards of regal usage and hospitality was remarkable for one born to a small worldly inheritance. Ranjit Singh`s patrimony did not amount to more than a few villages precariously held in those turbulent days, and his authority scarcely coincided with any recognizable or settled geographical
PARTITION OF THE PUNJAB (1947) was the result of the overwhelming support the Muslim demand for the creation of Pakistan, an independent and sovereign Muslim State, had gathered in India. When the word Pakistan was first mentioned, the idea had been laughed out of court, even by the Muslims themselves.
PATTIDARI, lit. cosharing or shareholding, was, like mislddri, a system of land tenure during the Sikh period. The basic principle was traceable to the time honoured institution of joint family and inheritance of property in equal shares by descendants (male only) whenever a division took place, the rule of primogeniture
POONA RESIDENCY CORRESPONDENCE is an English rendering, in several volumes, of selections from the Persian records of the Peshwa Dafiar, a collection of British official records of the Resident`s transactions concerning the cis Sutlej region. Prior to the establishment of the Delhi Residency (1803) and the Ludhiana Agency (1809), the
POPULATION of the Sikhs, small as compared to other major religious communities of India, is chiefly concentrated in the Punjab, India, although being fond of travel, Sikhs are found in nearly all corners of the globe. The community is 500 years old, but the data regarding its spread geographically and
PRASADI HATHI, an elephant trained to perform several unusual feats, was among the presents brought to Guru Gobind Singh by an Assamese chief, Ratan Rai. According to Sikh chronicles, Ratan Rai`s father. Ram Rai had served Guru Tegh Bahadur during his travels across Assam in the mid1660s and received his
PROCLAMATION (1849), declaring that the kingdom of the Punjab had ceased to be and that all the territories of Maharaja Duleep Singh had become part of the British dominions in India, was issued on 29 March 1849 by Governor General Lord Dalhousie. Earlier in the day a darbdrwsis held in
PUNJAB BOUNDARY COMMISSION was one of the two high powered panels set up under Governor General Lord Mountbatten`s partition plan of 3 June 1947 (the other one being the Bengal Boundary Commission) to divide the Punjab between India and Pakistan, the two new states that were being carved out. The
PUNJABI SUBA MOVEMENT, a long drawn political agitation launched by the Sikhs demanding the creation of Punjabi Suba or Punjabi speaking state in the Punjab. At Independence it was commonly recognized that the Indian states then comprising the country did not have any rational or scientific basis. They were more
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