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Sikh reformist movements (16)
Sikh reformist movements
AKALI DAL KHARA SAUDA BAR, an organization of Akali reformers working for the liberation of Sikh shrines from the control of conservative Udasi priests or mahants. The organization was originally called Khalsa Diwan Khara Sauda Bar set up in 1912 and comprised volunteers mostly from a cluster of villages inhabited by Virk Jatt Sikhs in the Lower Chenab Canal Colony in Sheikh upura district, now in Pakistan. Canal colonies in West Punjab were usually called bars, lit. semi forests, which these areas really were before the introduction of canal irrigation.
Sikh reformist movements
AKALI MOVEMENT, variously known as Gurdwara Reform Movement or Gurdwara Agitation is how Sikh's long drawn campaign in the early twenties of the twentieth century for the liberation of their gurdwaras or holy shrines is described. The campaign which elicited enthusiastic support, especially, from the rural masses, took the form of a peaceful agitation marches, divans or religious gatherings, and demonstrations for Sikhs to assert their right to manage their places of worship.
Sikh reformist movements
ANAND MARRIAGE ACT was passed in 1909 by the Imperial (i.e. GovernorGeneral`s) Legislative Council to establish legal "validity of the marriage ceremony common among the Sikhs called Anand." The origins of marriage by Anand ceremony go back to early Sikhism. The practice which somewhat lapsed during the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was sought to be revived as part of the religious reform initiated by the Nirankari movement and followed up especially by the Singh Sabha.
Sikh reformist movements
BHAI PHERU MORCHA, one of a series of campaigns in the Sikhs` agitation in the 1920`s for the reformation of their holy places. Gurdwara Sangat Sahib, located in Mien ke Maur in Lahore district, about 15 km from Chhanga Manga railway station, dedicated to the memory of Bhai Pheru (1640-1706), a masand or parish leader in the time of Guru Har Rai who was honoured for his devotion by Guru Gobind Singh with the titles of Sachchi Dahri (True Bearded) and Sangat Sahib, was an important shrine, with 2,750 acres of land attached to it, and was being managed by Mahant Kishan Das.
Sikh reformist movements
CHETRAMIAS, a cult of saint worship incorporating elements from Christianity, Vaisnavism and Sufism founded by one Chet Ram (1835-94), an Arora Hindu of the village of Sharakpur in present day Sheikhupura district of Pakistan. Almost illiterate, Chet Ram was neither a saint nor a Sufi. He was a camp follower in the second Chinese war (1858-60), and on his discharge returned to India to settle down at Buchchoke where he got married and started dealing in opium and liquor.
Sikh reformist movements
CENTRAL MAJHA KHALSA DiWAN, also known as the Shiromani Panth Milauni Jatha, was one of the several regional organizations that came into being on the eve of the Gurdwara reform movement of the 1920's. A Khalsa Diwan in the Majha area had in fact been established as early as 1904, but it had merged with the Chief Khalsa Diwan three years later. Upon its revival in 1918 as Central Majha Khalsa Diwan, it concerned itself mainly with reforming the ceremonial in Sikh holy places, especially at Tarn Taran and Amritsar.
Sikh reformist movements
DEV SAMAJ, a religious and social reform society, was founded on 16 February 1887 in Lahore by Pandit Shiv Narayan Agnihotri (1850-1929). The story of the Dev Samaj is in essence the story of its founder. Pandit Agnihotri was born in the village of Akbarpur, in Uttar Pradesh, on 20 December 1850. At sixteen he went to Thomson College of Engineering at Roorkee. In November 1873, he moved to Lahore taking a position as drawing master at the Government College.
Sikh reformist movements
GURU KA BAGH MORCHA, one of the major compaigns in the Sikhs` agitation in the early 1920`s for the reformation of their holy places. Guru ka Bagh in Ghukkevali village, about 20 km from Amritsar, has two historic gurudwaras close to each other, commemorating the visits respectively of Guru Arjan in 1585 and Guru Tegh Bahadur in 1664. The latter is laid out on the site of a bdgh (garden) which gave the place its name.Like most other gurudwaras, the management of these two had passed into the hands of mahantsor abbots belonging to the monastic order of Udasi Sikhs.
Sikh reformist movements
KHALSA DIWAN, afterwards renamed Central Malva Khalsa Pritinidhi Diwan, Nabha, was formed on 1 January 1906 at a large conclave of the Sikhs held in the princely town. The inspiration came from Tikka Ripudaman Singh (1883-1943), henapparent to the Nabha throne, who was a staunch advocate of the Singh Sabha doctrine, and his tutor Bhai Kahn Singh. A committee consisting of five members, Hazura Singh, Nihal Singh, Bedi Hukam Singh, Raghbfr Singh and Mihari Singh, was constituted the same day to administer the Diwan.
Sikh reformist movements
KHALSA DIWAN AMRITSAR, established at Amritsar on 11 April 1883 to oversee and provide direction to the work of the Singh Sabha. This reform movement had originated in Amritsar with the formation of the first Singh Sabha on 1 October 1873. Singh Sabhas began springing up in other places, the one at Lahore being formed on 2 November 1879. Amritsar and Lahore Singh Sabhas joined hands to evolve a common platform under the name of General Sabha set up at Amritsar on 11 April 1880.

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The etymology of the term 'gurdwara' is from the words 'Gur (ਗੁਰ)' (a reference to the Sikh Gurus) and 'Dwara (ਦੁਆਰਾ)' (gateway in Gurmukhi), together meaning 'the gateway through which the Guru could be reached'. Thereafter, all Sikh places of worship came to be known as gurdwaras.

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