Also it need not fulfil the requirements of religious music in form and structure. Kirtans, bhajans, sufi and kalam and qawwdtt na'at, among others, are examples of devotional music. Vedic chant, Quranic chant, the liturgy and hymns of the Christian churches and the sabda kirtan of the Sikhs are examples of religious music. A unique feature of much of the Sikh music lies in the fact that the texts therein present the teachings of the Gurus and a large number were composed simultaneously with the music. This dignified expression of faith comes out in its full impact in the gurudwara where its import and message may be fully realized by a devoted adherent to the faith.
Even those who have no knowledge of the Sikh religion are impressed with the fresh and vital sounds of this music. Retention of the purity of form in performance as set down by the Gurus more than 400 years ago makes possible this remarkable impact today. While the Gurmat sangit was probably influenced by devotional styles prevalent during the 15th and 16th centuries in northwestern India, its main cliaracteristics came from Indian classical music. The history of the classical idiom can be traced back to 1500 BC to the Vedic chant and its conception of the effect of the combined sound of music and the text on the individual. Vedic rites used singing accompanied by dancing and instruments to express the meaning of the verses.
The "sound" was as important in certain ceremonies as the meaning of the word. In the Rgiveda, only two or three different pitches were intoned. For the later Samaveda, a fixed descending scale of five, six, or seven notes was the basis for samgdyana, the musical aspect of Vedic chant. However, another sort of music developed from the materials of the samgdyana sometime around 600-500 BC known as marga. This art of music contained a system of new melodies and rhythms. Seven suddha (pure or unaltered tones) jails formed the basis of this style and these jails can be looked upon as the first ragas.
Knowledge of the historical development of classical music may be derived in part from a succession of Sanskrit treatises, each describing the musical practice of the particular time in which its author lived. One of the earliest is the Ndradasiksd, dating from the first century AD which serves as a bridge between Vedic chant and early art music. These early treatises document how very old the classical music system is.Probably one of the most complete authorities and one that is frequently referred to in modern times is Bharata Muni's Natyasdstra, a study of dramaturgy in which music, dance and drama are treated as a single major art form.
The date of its composition is controversial, but is usually placed somewhere between 200 BC and AD 200. Other texts beginning with Panini (circa 500 BC) and extending to the king Harsavardhana (AD 589-647) continue to support the use of the three arts together for court and temple performances. For melodic purpose the Natyasdstra gives seven jdti ragas and three gramas (scales): sadja, madhyama and gandhdra, with the option of producing more jails by overlapping of the scales. The system included all the twenty-two srutis. Time measure (tala) and drumming are discussed and three speeds are described. Of the instruments given, the vmd types seem to be the most prominent but the vmd was not as highly developed as that in use today.
Dhruvas (songs) were of seven types and these were described in relation to the part of the drama where used. Matarigas's Brhaddesn (AD 400-600) seems to be the first writing actually to use the term "raga" and Narda's Pancama Sara Samhitd (circa AD 600-900) is the first to call subordinateragas "raginis." The main ragas of Narda's work are: Sri, Vasanta, Mdlava, Malldra, Hindola and Karndta. Somesvara in his Abhildsgdthd Chintdmani (AD 1131) describes the concept of rasa (mood) and includes performance times from the six seasons of the Indian year for theragas. Mesarkarna in his Rdgamald (1509) designates the parent ragas as: Bhairav, Mdlkauns, Hindola, Dipaka, Sri and Megha.
This classification corresponds in most respects with the one found in Rdgamald at the end of the Guru Granth Sahib. Pundarika (1595) has four volumes to his credit and in these works he gives the performance time for each raga. His classification uses 19th its (parentragas). He also discusses the picturization of ragas, an idea exemplified in the ragam did paintings of the Punjab hills and other places.Muhammad Raza Khan in Naghmati Asafi (1813) rejects the ragaragini system and simply groups ragas according to tonal relationship but still retains the term "ragini". His suddha scale is Raga Bilaval of the ancient Mukhari. Bilaval has remained the standard scale for North Indian classical music since his time.
These scholars were mainly concerned with the theoretical development of the classical idiom. The actual performance of Indian music was strongly influenced by other factors. By the year 1,000 music had gradually become separated from dance and Sanskrit drama. The growth of regional languages was one of the main causes of the decline of Sanskrit. Few people understood the ancient language and its prdkrit.
Foreign invasions brought about new developments in Indian music. The Arabs came to North India as early as AD 710 when Muhammad bin Qasim crossed through Baluchistan. The Arabs had been fired by Prophet Muhammad (5696-32) to spread their religion all over the then civilized world.By the time of the establishment of early Delhi Sultanate in 1206, the impact of Islamic music had become distinctly noticeable. Sometimes Persian naghmds were combined with Indianragas to make new ragas .
Persian was the language of the court, and music was based on Persian poetry with its poetic metre and romantic texts. Moreover, another musical influence came from the Islamic lands with the Sufis. About 100 years after the death of the Prophet, Islamic religion split into sects, some adhering strictly to the Prophet's teachings, while others like the Sufis preferred other types of religious expression. The Chishti Sufis believed that man could best reach Godconsciousness through the use of devotional poetry set to music for meditation.
The Sufis spread all over the Middle East, congregating in those places where they might find another Sufi saint. Towards the close of the 12th century, Hazrat Khwaja Mu'in udDin Chishti with a group of his followers came to Ajmer in Rajasthan.At his shrine devotees still gather to honour the saint and celebrate his 'Urs (anniversary of death)with qawwdh singing. From the 14th to the 17th century, the Sufis established a chain of monasteries in Rajasthan, Punjab and parts of Uttar Pradesh.
Qawwali Na'at, a Muslim religious music, developed during this period and was well known in the time of Guru Nanak. Foreign musical systems did not change the structure of Indian classical music.Even though men like Amir Khusrau created newragas with Persian names, the larger part of the material used for these was of Indian origin and the form too was Indian. The Emperor Akbar (1556-1605), a liberal patron of the arts, collected both Indian and Persian musicians at his court. The 16th century thus became a period of unusual flowering of the art of music and the famous Tansen at the Emperor's court still remains one of the most celebrated Indian musicians in history.
The availability of support for the arts has a definite effect on their quality, proliferation and development. Historically, patronage for the arts came mainly from royal courts and temples. Music, a divine art, has always been a part of temple worship.Temple musicians as well as concert artists perform in the classical idiom for festival celebrations.
These concerts may be held in temple mandapams and courtyards within the temple complex. In South India some rulers donated liberally for the support of temple music rather than maintain numerous musicians at court on a permanent basis. Some temples with long programmes of services in such areas as Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa did not allow temple musicians to perform at the court. The musical programmes of northern regional courts tended to follow the pattern set by the imperial court of Akbar, but on a less elaborate scale.
With the decline of Mughal rule in the 18th century, hundreds of musicians left Delhi to join those regional courts where the rulers were patrons of music. Considerable rivalry existed between these courts to secure the best musicians. A large court might have as many as 300 performers on call and the music department was in the charge of a superintendent who arranged all the court music for social and ceremonial occasions. Some rulers wanted music sounding continuously from very early morning until late in the evening. During the 19th century ghardnds developed in several court towns.
Famous musicians attracted students from far and near and thus a sort of school of music with emphasis on certain aspects of performance was created.Among the best known of the Indian courts that patronized music were Jaipur, Rampur, Patiala, Hyderabad, Mysore, Gwalior and Baroda only to name a few. The smaller states in the Punjab hills were vulnerable to frequent attack and few of these chiefs had time to cultivate the arts on a large scale. However, several of the smaller courts pa tronized painting and picturization of the moods of the differentragas . With the advent of Independence, support for the arts underwent a complete change.
Immediately following the withdrawal of the British the princely rulers had to hand over their territories to the State, thus losing the income these provided.During the early 1950's these former rulers were left only with their privy purses and a few other privileges, and in most cases they were not sufficient to maintain the elaborate musical programmes which had been the custom in the past. Within a few years' span, hundreds of musicians all over India were suddenly left without any means of support.AllIndia Radio did a phenomenal piece of work in quickly setting up the machinery for auditioning and training the court musicians to fit the time schedules of broadcasting.
Concerts paid for from public subscriptions were organized by social groups in cities and towns to collect funds for destitute artists as for other causes.Musical evenings in the homes of wealthy professional and business people provided other income for favourite classical musicians. Temple music had to face also the problem of paucity of funds, because the largest contributions had earlier come from the princes. Today musicians teach and perform on a freelance basis both for religious occasions and classical concerts. A growing interest in the classical idiom brings many students, although few are willing to practise the long hours that the former gurusisya system demanded.
Those few who are able to manoeuvre Western concert tours usually do well. The bases of Indian classical music are raga (melodic measure) and tola (rhythmic metre).A raga is a group of notes derived originally from Vedic hymns and folk and tribal melodies and arranged in the asccndingdescending order as a scale. A raga represents much more than a simple scale, be cause its origin is melodic and the individual notes have specific types of approach in ascent and descent. The distinguishing melodic phrases and characteristic figures are a fundamental part of the total raga structure.
Two ragas might have the same basic tones, but the melodic phrases might differ along with mood and performance style. Great care has been exercised in the past centuries as well as in modern times with regard to the preservation of exact pitch relationship between the tones of any established raga. The belief exists that this relationship must be precise practically to the exact number of vibrations in order to produce the mood ascribed to a given raga.The performancetime theory is a result of these pitch relationships and the powers reputedly indicated for specificragas are possible only when a careful shaping of melodic sequences is present.
A recent experiment investigating brain waves with electronic equipment showed that vibrations resulting from the subject listening to serious music w^ere of the same type as those occurring when the subject was practising yogic meditation. The Indian musicological theory of the past, still adhered to by the purists today, claims that the ultimate effect of a raga performance can only be obtained when every detail of the raga has been properly presented. The standard scale for Indian music contains seven tones, viz. SaSadja; ReRsabha; GaGandhara; MaMadhayma; PaPanchama; DhaDhaivata; NiNisada; and SaSadja, etc. in a higher pitch.
Sa is the tonic or fundamental tone which is the basic note for the drone accompaniment. When a tamburd is used, the four strings are tuned to three Sa's and one Pa. However, for someragas, performers prefer that Ni replace one Sa. Other notes which figure largely in composition are vddi and samvddi.The vddi is a central focal point in raga phrases and the samvddi'is the next most frequently heard tone. The location of the vddis within the scale may have some significance in the performancetime theory.
Tala, the rhythmic organization of beats, is based on the cyclic principle. Just as the world movement by day and night is based on a 24hour cycle of the earth rotating around its axis, so does Indian music maintain its rhythmic movement by time cycles which may be of long or short duration.Tin tala, one of the most popular, has 16 beats divided into four groups, 4+4+4+4; dddrd tala has six beats with two groups of three beats each. However, groups within a tala are not always even. Jhaptala has ten beats grouped 2+3+2+3.
Primary and secondary accents within the tala should fall upon important notes of the raga. Therefore, strong and light beats have significance for the soloist.For fin tola: "1234 52678 9Â°101112 133141516 The heavy accent falls on the sam or first beat of the cycle, followed by three light beats. Beat 5 receives a secondary accent followed by three light beats. Beat 9 is unaccented as is the whole group, 9, 10, 11, 12. Beat 13 again is a secondary accent followed by 3 light beats arriving with a heavy accent on the sam.
The heavy accent on the first beat of a cycle is highly significant for improvisation where the soloist must time his phrases so that the end falls on the sam. The khali serves as a warning that the sam is coming and the soloist should prepare his composition so that his phrases coincide with the framework of the tala. The iabid or pakhdvaj vddak has means for elaborating his part of the composition when time is given for this. Tala compositions are based on designed subdivisions of the beat with repeatable patterns as part of the design.
Tans or short rhythmic figures played at fast tempo form a part of virtuoso drumming which has a number of fixed compositions for solo performance. When following a soloist, the drummer guides his playing to match and complement what the soloist is performing.He may enhance the artistic result but may not detract from it by trying to overshadow the melodic meaning of the composition. Most great artists, when accompanied by an exceptionally good drummer, give him a chance to display his own capabilities at some point in the performance. Drumming is learned through a system of mnemonics called bols or drum syllables.
These indicate the fingers to be used, the place on the drumhead where the stroke should fall and whether the stroke is light or heavy. When playing the tabid (pair of drums), the right hand index finger (for righthand drum) is used for Na, Tha, Dha, Nuh, and Tin; the righthand middle finger for Ti, Ta, Te, Dha. Combination ^^representing both hands (one for each drum) begin with Dha.Drumming involves an elaborate and precise system; these items are small illustrations.Not all elements are given in the bols because some sounds cannot be recited quickly enough.
Also certain bols always follow certain other bols. All this is understood only by those who practise the art of drumming under the guidance of a competent teacher. The eversounding drone of Indian classical music is important both musically and philosophically. Some people consider the drone as symbolic of the primordial sound of the universe, ndda, from which all other sounds have emanated. When Pythagoras (c. 5825-07 BC) experimented with a monochord, he proved that all tones could be produced from one primarytone by stopping a single string at different points.
However, this fact was known to the Indians long before the time of Pythagoras.In more recent times, Helmholtz (1821-1894) demonstrated the same principle with his overtone series. The performing musician must be constantly aware of the drone or sa or sadaj tone because this is the note against which he measures all other pitches so that completely accurate intonation of the raga tones is achieved.Each singer may place sa where most comfortable for his voice, which is somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Western middle C.
The pitch level for instrumentalists is about the same. Classical compositions have a formal organization which begins with alap, or exposition of the raga. Each tone of theraga is shown with its proper approach beginning with the lower tetrachord of the octave and continuing with the upper four notes.Then small figures from the melodic phrases begin to appear and all of this is without drums. As more complete phrases are introduced, the soloist adds the rhythm by strumming on an accompanying instrument (vocal) or the chikari strings of the solo instrument.
In a vocal composition this slow opening section is called vilambit (includes alap); for an instrumental piece alap, jon, jhalld. In concert performance, the skill and understanding of the artist are revealed in the treatment and development of the alap.ragas have two main parts, the first of which is the sthai containing melodies located in the lower portion of the scale or lower register (mandar saptak). The second part is the antard which centres in the upper portion of the scale and the higher register (madhyantar saptak). In someragas the melodic material is not separated in this manner but may overlap in both sthd'i.