ADI SAKHIAN (adi = first; sakhian, plural of sakhi = anecdotes, stories, discourses, parables) is one of the early compilations but not the first of the extant janam sakhi traditions to evolve. The manuscript, dated 1758 Bk/ AD 1701, and copied by Shambhu Nath Brahman was first located by Dr
ADVENTURES OF AN OFFICER IN THE PUNJAB (2 vols.) by Major H. M. L. Lawrence, under the pseudonym of Bellasis, published in AD 1846 by Henry Colburn, London, and reprinted in 1970 by the Languages Department, Punjab, Patiala. The book which is a rambling account, half fact half fiction, of
AHWAL-I-DINA BEG KHAN , Persian manuscript of unknown authorship, gives biographical details about Adina Beg Khan, faujdar of Jalandhar. The manuscript forms part of the collection of Persian Manuscripts, Sir H.Elliot\'s Papers, Additional MS. 30780 (ff. 2152-92), Extracts relating to India, vol. VIII. 1 , preserved in British Library, London.
AHWAL-I-FIRQAH-I-SIKKHAN, variously titled as Twarikh-i-Sikkhan, Kitab-i-Tankhi-Sikkhan and Guzarish-i-Ahwal-i-Si\'kkhan, by Munshi Khushwaqt Rai, is a history in Persian of the Sikhs from their origin to AD 1811. Khushwaqt Rai was an official news writer of the East India Company accredited to the Sikh city of Amritsar. It was written at the
AJAT SAGAR, by Surjan Das Ajat, is the religious book of the Ajatpanthi sect of the Udasis. Written in AD 1851, the only known manuscript of the work was available in the Sikh Reference Library, Amritsar, until it perished during the Blue Star action in the holy premises in 1984.
AKHBAR DARBAR LAHORE, an unpublished collection of 92 letters, reports, notes and summaries of events connected with the second Anglo Sikh war, 1848-49. The manuscript, in Persian, is preserved in Dr Ganda Singh Collection at Punjabi University, Patiala. The entire manuscript comprises 382 pages. These documents are communications written by
AKHBAR LUDHIANA, a weekly newspaper in Persian sponsored by the British North-West Frontier Agency at Ludhiana in November 1834. The paper, a four page sheet initially, but doubling its size within two years, started printing at the American Missionary Press, Ludhiana, shifting to the Pashauri Mall Press, Ludhiana, in June
AKHBAR-I-DARBAR-I-MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH, also called Akhbari Deorhi Sardar Ranjit Singh Bahadur, is a set of Persian manuscripts comprising 193 loose sheets of unequal size and containing, as the title indicates, news of the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780-1839). These sheets are believed to be newsletters sent from the Punjab
AKHBARAT-I-DEORH!I-MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH BAHADUR, a Persian manuscript written in nastaliq, mixed with shikasta, preserved in the National Archives of India at New Delhi. This is a copy of the roznamacha, i.e. a day today account, of the proceedings of the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh covering the period from January
AKHBARAT-I-SINGHAN, also known as Twarikhi Sikkhan, is a diary of the day today events of the period from 1895 Bk/AD 1839 to 1903 Bk/AD 1847 based on official reports which General Avitabile (q.v.), military governor of Peshawar during Sikh times, received from various districts under his jurisdiction. It is written
AMAR KATHA, of unknown authorship, comprises a mixture of diverse hagiographic traditions bearing on the life of Guru Nanak. The work remains unpublished, but several manuscripts are known to exist: for instance, two of them, dated AD 1818 and 1872, respectively, are preserved in the Guru Nanak Dev University Library
AMARNAMA, a Persian work comprising 146 verses composed in AD 1708 by Bhai Natth Mall, a dhadi or balladeer who lived from the time of Guru Hargobind to that of Guru Gobind Singh, Nanak X. The manuscript of the work in Gurmukhi script obtained from Bhai Fatta, ninth in descent
AMIR ULIMLA, also known as MUNTAKHAB ULHAQA`IQ, a collection of miscellaneous letters, in Persian script, mostly of Sikh chiefs of the Punjab addressed to one another on subjects relating to private and public affairs. Compiled by Amir Chand in A.H. 1209 (ADi 794-95), the manuscript comprises 127 folios and 247
ANANDPUR DI VAR is a versified account in Punjabi, by one Ram Singh, of a battle fought in 1812 between Sodhi Surjan Singh of Anandpur and Raja Maha Chand of Kahlur. Sodhi Surjan Singh was a lineal descendant of Suraj Mall, a son of Guru Hargobind. His father, Nahar Singh,
ANANDU, noncanonically spelt Anand, by Guru Amar Das, is like Guru Nanak`s Japu, one of the more familiar texts in the Guru Granth Sahib. Set in the Ramkali musical measure and comprising forty stanzas, Anand is recited liturgically, especially in its shortened form, at the conclusion of all congregational services
ANI RAI, author of Jangnama Guru Gobind Singh Ji, was one of the numerous poets and scholars who enjoyed the patronage of Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708). The Jangnama is an account in verse of a battle on the banks of the River Sutlej in which an attack from the imperial
Anik Bisthar by Pritam Singh \'Safir\' is a collection of forty-eight poems. Safir is a major modem Punjabi poet who has eleven books of poetry to his credit. Safir is a romantic as well as a mystic poet. With romantic wings the lover-poet wants to fly to spiritual and mystic
APOCRYPHAL COMPOSITIONS, known in Sikh vocabulary as kachchi bani (unripe, rejected texts) or vadhu bani (superfluous texts) are those writings, mostly in verse but prose not excluded,which have been attributed to the Gurus, but which were not incorporated in the Guru Granth Sahib at the time of its compilation in
ARZ ULALFAZ, lit. breadth or scope (arz) of words (aJfaz) or petition, request or address (arz) in words (alfaz), is a versified composition in Persian by Bhai Nand Lal Goya, a noted poet and devout follower of Guru Gobind Singh. Bhai Nand Lal in between his periods of service at
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