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RAM SINGH, BABA (1816-1885), leader of the Namdhari or Kuka movement in the Punjab, was born on 3 February 1816, in the village of Bhaini Araiari, in Ludhiana district. Ram Singh was the eldest among the four children of Jassa Singh and his wife, Sada Kaur. Ram Singh was married...
PARTAP SINGH KAIRON (1901-1965). political leader of wide influence and chief minister of the Punjab from 1956 to 1964, was born on 1 October 1901 in the village of Kairon, in Amritsar district of the Punjab, in a farming family of modest means. His father Nihal Singh, who had been...
NANKANA SAHIB MASSACRE refers to the grim episode during the Gurdwara Reform movement in which a peaceful batch of reformist Sikhs was subjected to a murderous assault on 20 February 1921 in the holy shrine at Nankana Sahib, the birthplace of Guru Nanak. This shrine along with six others in...
MORCHA, in Persian murchah or murchal meaning entrenchments, fortification or battlefront, has, apart from its usage in military strategy, entered Indian political vocabulary via the Gurdwara Reform or Akali movement of the early 1920`s. In that prolonged agitation for the liberation of Sikh historical shrines from the control of a...
MIAN KHIMA, Maharaja Duleep Singh`s favorite Muhammadan attendant who had served him since his childhood. He came with the Maharaja to Fatehgarh after the latter was dethroned and exiled from Lahore by the British in 1849. At Fatehgarh he was replaced by Bhajan Lal, an English educated young Brahman of...

MANGAL SINGH, a Risaldar in the erstwhile princely state of Patiala, was born in 1842, the son of jagirdar Hira Singh. He was arrested in 1872 for his alleged involvement in the attack by the Kukas on the butchers of Malerkotia, and was imprisoned at Allahabad.

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