HIRA SINGH (c. 1706-1767), founder of the Nakai mislor chief ship, was a Sandhu Jatt of the village of Bahirval, near Chuniari, in Lahore district, now in Pakistan. He was born the son of Chaudhari Hem Raj, headman of the village. In 1731, he received the initiatory rites of the Khalsa at the hands of the celebrated Bhal Mani Singh, and took to the adventurous and daring way of life of the Sikhs of those days. A number of young men of neighbouring villages joined him in his exploits, and he collected a lot of goods and many cattle, camels and horses. When the Sikhs sacked Kasur in 1763 and conquered Sirhind in 1764, Hira Singh occupied Bahirval, Chunian, Dipalpur, Jambar, Jelhupur, Kariganval and Khudlan.

He established his headquarters at Chunian, 60 km from Lahore, on the road from Firozpur to Multan, and laid the foundation of the Nakai principality so called after the name of the region known as Nakka over which Hira Singh dominated. Hira Singh was killed in action in 1767 at Pakpattan which he had attacked. HIRA SINGH (b. 1835), son of Kirpal Singh, Zijdgirddr of the village of Sadhaura in Ambala district of the Punjab, was born in 1835. He was one of the twenty-two subds, i.e. governors or deputies, appointed in different parts by the Namdhari hierarchy. In 1869, Hira Singh led a deputation of the Kukas to Maharaja Ranbir Singh of Kashmir who, at their request, agreed to raise a Kuka regiment to which about 150 men were recruited.

The regiment was, however, disbanded after two years under pressure of the British government. Hira Singh was arrested along with Baba Ram Singh at BhainT Sahib in 1872 after the Malerkotla. incidents. Set at liberty, he visited Rangoon in August 1880, to see Baba Ram Singh then under detention there. Hira Singh was arrested at Calcutta on 1 November 1880 on his return journey to the Punjab. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Fauja Singh, Kuka Movement. Delhi, 1965 2. Ahlnwalia, M.M., Kukas: The Freedom Fighters of the Panjab. Bombay, 1965 3. Ganda Singh, Kukian dl Vithid. Amritsar, 1944 HIRA SINGH (1875-1929), a Ghadr revolutionary, was born at the village of Charar, in Lahore district, the son of Mahna Singh.

He left home as a young man and advcntured abroad, reaching China where he made a considerable amount of money. He had his links with the radical elements and was in Hong Kong when he was banished from the Colony for his political activity (December 1914). Spending some time in Saigon and Bangkok, he returned to India. He continued to mix with the Ghadr migrants who had returned home from America and travelled to various places in Sindh and Baluchistan, ostensibly to purchase cattle but in reality to further the cause of the revolution. He seduced the sovdrs of the 23rd Cavalry at Lahore to join hands with the members of the Ghadr party.

On 9 June 1915, he was arrested and tried in what was known as the Supplementary Lahore Conspiracy Case, 1915. On 30 March 1916 he was awarded death sentence which was later commuted to one of life imprisonment. He spent 13 years in different jails before he died on 6 February 1929 of a serious abdominal ailment in the Civil Hospital at Belgaum, in present day Karnataka state. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Puri, Harish K., Ghadr Movement. Amritsar, 1983 2. Mohan, Kamlesh, Militant Nationalism in the Punjab 1919-35. Delhi, 1985 3. Jagjit Singh, Ghadr Parti Lahir. Delhi, 1979 4. Deol, Grudev Singh, Ghadr Parti ate Bhdrat da Qaumi Andolan. Amritsar, 1970

References :

1. Seetal, Sohan Singh, The Sikh Misals and the Panjab. Ludhiana, n.d.
2. Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, vol. I. Princeton, 1963
3. Gupta, Hari Ram, History of the Sikhs, vol. IV. Delhi, 1982