AVITABILE, PAOLO CRESCENZO MARTINO (1791-1850), a Neapolitan soldier of fortune who, starting life as a private gunner, succeeded in obtaining high ranks in two widely separated Asiatic armies of Persia and Punjab, was born at Agerola, Naples, Italy, on 25 October 1791. From 1807 onwards he successively served in the
FATEH SINGH MAN (d. 1845). son of Sham Singh Man, soldier, diplomat and commander in Maharaja Ranjit Singh`s army. He entered the service of the Maharaja as a trooper, and took part in several campaigns, including those of Multan (1818) and Kashmir (1819). He rose to be a kumeddn.
JAMES (d. 1825), in Sikh records known as James Sahib Feringhee, was an Englishman from Yorkshire. A deserter from the British army, he had taken up service under Raja Sansar Chand of Karigra. In 1820, he left Sansar Chand and joined Maharaja Ranjit Singh`s army as a gunner. In
MAZHABI SIKHS, commonly pronounced as Mazhbi Sikhs, is the name given to Sikh converts from the Chuhra community, among the lowest in the Hindu caste order. Chuhras in medieval Punjab, corresponding to Bharigis of the Hindi speaking regions, were the village menials who received customary payment in kind at
RANJIT SINGH (1780-1839), Maharaja of the Punjab, popularly called Sheri Punjab, i.e. the Lion of the Punjab, was the most colourful, the most powerful and yet the most endearing figure in the history of the Sikhs. He ruled over a domain extending from the Khaibar Pass in the west
AKRURA Oodho, Akrura (of the Dwapara age) and Trilochan, Namdev and Kabir (of Iron age) got their sins effaced by remembering the Name of the Lord and the same undeceivable Name, which ferries the saints across the world-ocean, came into the mind of Guru Amar Das. (Swayye Mahle Teeje
FRANCIS, a French adventurer, who arrived at Lahore in 1833 and joined Maharaja Ranjit Singli`s army. But he had no military training, and was discharged from the service soon afterwards.
JAWAHAR SINGH (1814-1845), son of Manna Singh Aulakh, was wazir or prime minister of the Sikh kingdom for a few months from 14 May 1845 to 21 September 1845 during the regency of his sister, Maharani Jind Kaur. He was appointed guardian to his young nephew, Dulcep Singh, who
MOHAN SINGH, GENERAL (1909-1989), famous for his part in the Indian National Army for the liberation of India from British rule, in which he held the rank of a general, was born the only son of Tara Singh and Hukam Kaur, a peasant couple of Ugoke village, near Sialkot
RATTRAY alias LESLIE, an English soldier of fortune who served in Lahore during 1834-36 as one of the commandants of a battalion of the Sikh army. In 1836, he deserted the Sikh army to join the forces of Dost Muhammad Khan, Amir of Kabul. He fought on the side
BABAR, ZAHIR UD-DIN MUHAMMAD (1483-1530), soldier of fortune, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, diarist and poet, descending in the fifth generation from Timur, was born on 14 February 1483. In June 1494, he succeeded his father, \'Umar Shaikh\', as ruler of Farghana, whose revenues supported no more than
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