LITTLER, SIRJOHN HUNTER (1783-1856), garrison commander at Firozpur, the concentration point of British forward movement preparatory to the first Anglo Sikh war, was born on 6 January 1783 at Tarvin, Cheshire, England. He joined the 10th Bengal Native Infantry in August 1800 and served in the campaigns under Lord Lake
WHISH, SIR WILLIAM SAMPSON (1787-1853), divisional commander of the British army under Lord Hugh Gough in the second Anglo-Sikh war, was born at North world, England, on 27 February 1787, the son of Richard Whish. He received a commission in the Bengal artillery in 1804. In 1826, he was appointed
VAK, from Sanskrit vaka (sounding, speaking ; a text, recitation or formula) or vakya (speech, saying, statement, declaration, a sentence or period), has a special connotation in the Sikh system. In Sikh terminology, Vak means the command or lesson read from the Guru Granth Sahib. Vak laina or hukam laina
THACKWELL, SIR EDWARD JOSEPH (1781-1859), commander of cavalry division of the army of the Sutlej under Lord Hugh Gough in the first Anglo Sikh war was born on 1 February 1781, the son of John Thackwell. A veteran of Peninsula and Waterloo, he assumed command of the army of the
SULTAN MAHMUD KHAN (d. 1859) , son of General Ghaus Khan, was a commander of a section of heavy artillery during the regime of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. His derah of artillery was designated as Topkhanai Sultan Mahmud. After the death of General Ghaus Khan in 1814, although the chief command
STEINBACH, HENRY, a Prussian, was one of the many European adventurers who secured employment in the Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his successors. Steinbach joined the Sikh infantry in 1836 as a battalion commander on a starting salary of Rs 600 per month, increased to Rs 800 by 1841.
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