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Maharani Jindan-Queen Regent of the Punjab-noted the Sikh losses in the prior battles( Mudki, Ferozeshah, Aliwal) and despatched ten horsemen with an urgent message to the veteran general, Sham Singh Attariwala. He in turn, rounded up the support of immortals of the Khalsa-the Akali Nihangs-headed by Akali Hanuman Singh. By…
WELLESLEY PAPERS. Private correspondence and letters of Lord Wellesley, Governor General of India (1798-1805), at the British Library and Museum, London, important for the light it throws on British policy towards the cis Sutlej region and towards the Sikh Darbar. Part of this correspondence relating to the Afghan threat to…
VADDA GHALLUGHARA, lit. major holocaust or carnage, so called to distinguish it from another similar disaster, Chhota (minor) Ghallughara that took place in 1746, is how a one day battle between the Dal Khalsa and Ahmad Shah Durrani fought on 5 February 1762 with a heavy toll of life is…
UNITY CONFERENCE, convened on 3 November 1932 at Allahabad by a small group of Hindu and Muslim leaders led by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya and Maulana Shaukat `All, to which were invited delegates representing a broad spectrum of Indian religious communities, interest groups, and political organizations, aimed at drafting agreements…
TRIPARTITE TREATY (June 1838). As the rumours of Russian infiltration into Persia and Afghanistan spread in the late thirties of the nineteenth century, the Governor General, Lord Auckland, despatched Captain Alexander Burnes to Kabul to make an alliance with Amir Dost Muhammad. The Afghan ruler made Peshawar the price of…
TREATY WITH GULAB SINGH, 16 March 1846. Gulab Singh Dogra was formally invested with the title of Maharaja on 15 March 1846 and on the following day was concluded between him and the British government a treaty whereby he was recognized as ruler of the hill territory of Jammu and…

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World Gurudwaras will strive to be most comprehensive directory of Historical Gurudwaras and Non Historical Gurudwaras around the world.The etymology of the term 'gurdwara' is from the words 'Gur (ਗੁਰ)' (a reference to the Sikh Gurus) and 'Dwara (ਦੁਆਰਾ)' (gateway in Gurmukhi), together meaning 'the gateway through which the Guru could be reached'. Thereafter, all Sikh places of worship came to be known as gurdwaras.

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