AKAL, BHAI, a carpenter resident of Vadda Ghar in present day Fandkot district of the Punjab and, according to Gurbilas Chhevin Patshahi, maternal grandfather of the celebrated Bhai Rup Chand, became a devotee of Guru Ram Das. He also served Guru Arjan and Guru Hargobind. He was a man
ANCESTORS,In ancient Hindu scriptures, the honouring of human ancestors is commanded. Pitri or mass\'s to one\'s ancestors arc regarded as sacred funeral rights and Sradh (offerings of food) are considered obligatory for placating the spirits of the departed ancestors up to thee seventh generation. It is believed that the
BUTALA, a village 7 km northeast of Baba Bakala (31Â°34`N, 75Â°16`E) in Amritsar district of the Punjab, is sacred to Guru Hargobind who, according to local tradition, visited here on 15 Phagun 1665 Bk/10 February 1609. The inhabitants of Butala, with the exception of an old lady and her
CHANDRA-HASA As for Chandrahasa, Dhrishta Buddhi was in great anguish. He himself caused to burn (destroy) his own house. (Nat M. 4, p. 982) He was prince of a Southern\' State. His father was killed in battle and his mother became Sati on the funeral pyre of her husband.
HINDAL (HANDAL), BHAI (d. 1648), a prominent Sikh of the time of Guru Ram Das, was the son of Gaji, a resident of Jandiala, 19 km east of Amritsar. His mother`s name was Sukkhi. He was married to Uttami, daughter of Hamza, a Chahal Jatt. He received initiation at
JAITA, BHAI. See JIVAN SINGH, BHAI JAITA SETH, BHAI, a devout Sikh of Guru Hargobind`s time, was a brave warrior. He stood guard at the Guru`s door and humbly served the visiting Sikhs. According to Bhai Man! Singh, Sikhdn di Bhagat Maid, he once said to Guru Hargobind, "0
JAITSAIILMAHALA 5 VARSLOKANNALI, by GuruArjan, is one of the twenty-two Vdrs, i.e. compositions in this folk form but moulded to a spiritual theme, included in the Guru Granth Sahib. It has been named Jaitsari because of the musical measure it belongs to. While the philosophical standpoint in the entire
MARU VAR, Guru Arjan`s composition in the Maru musical measure in the Guru Granth Sahib. Traditionally, Maru which gives the Vdr its title is elegiac verse and is commonly sung in the afternoon. This measure has a martial undertone as well. The singing of Maru rdga with devotion annuls
MUL MANTRA. This is the title commonly given to the opening lines of the Guru Granth Sahib, Sikh scripture, or to these lines when they or a portion of them are repeated at the beginning of each new raga section as contained in the Holy text. This is the primary
NADAR (Arabic nazar: glance, favourable regard, favour), implying Divine grace, is a concept central to Sikh religious tradition affirming its faith in a Transcendental Being responsive to human prayer and appeal for forgiveness and mercy. It reiterates at the same time a belief in the sovereignty of Divine Will
SATYUGA (SATJUG) In Satyuga the chariot is of contentment and charioteer of Dharma (Piety). (Var Asa, M. l, p. 470) In Satyuga everyone spoke Truth, in every home, there were enlightened persons absorbed in devotion. In Satyuga, the Dharma-bull stood on all its four feet, the enlightened person contemplates
SANDA MARKA Sanda and Marka made a petition to the demon king Hiranyakashipu against Prahlada..... (Bhairo M. 3, p. 1154) Sanda, Marka cried out to the king that Prahlada does not take interest in the studies and they were tired of instructing him. (Bhairo Namdev, p. 1165) Sanda and
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