AVTAR SINGH AZAD Avtar Singh \'Azad\', (1906 - 1972) the minor Punjabi poet, is not deserving of notice. Before independence, he had published four collections of poems, Swant Bundan (Drops of Bliss), Savan Pinghan (The Swings of Savan), Vishva Vedna (Plight of the World) and Kansoan (Intimations), and published
MACAULIFFE, MAX ARTHUR (1841-1913), English translator of the Sikh Scriptures and historian of Sikhism, was born on 10 September 1841 at Newcastle West, County Limerick, Ireland. He was educated at Newcastle School, Limerick, and at Springfield College and Queen\'s College, Galway. He received a broad humanistic education that allowed him
SANTOKH SINGH, BHAI (1787-1843), poet and historian, was born on 8 October 1787 the son of Bhai Deva Singh and Mat Rajadi, professionally cloth printers of Nurdin village, also known as Sarai Nurdin, 7 km northwest of Tarn Taran in Amritsar district of the Punjab. Deva Singh though poor
Sikhan De Raj Di Vithia, by Shardha Ram Philauri, written in Punjabi in 1922 Bk/A.D. 1866 and publihed in A.D. 1868 contains an account of the Punjab from Guru Nanak (1469-1539), founder of the Sikh faith, to the advent of the British in 1849. It was primarily meant for the
TRUMPP S TRANSLATION OF PORTIONS OF THE GURU GRANTH SAHIB, first published in 1877 under the title The Adi Granth, was the earliest attempt at rendering the Scripture of the Sikhs into another language. The translator, Dr Ernest Trumpp (1828-85), an eminent linguist proficient in several languages, western as
UDAI SINGH, BHAI (d. 1843), the last ruler of Kaithal state, was the younger of the two sons of Bhai Lal Singh. After the death of Bhai Lal Singh, his elder son Partap Singh succeeded him, but died soon after without a male heir. Udai Singh therefore became the
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