The history of Indian religiousness presents the ultimate in the development of the theory and practice of asceticism. Evidence of the existence of ascetic practices in India has come down to us from the most ancient period of known history; archaeology and literature have documented its growth as a pan Indian religious phenomenon; all the systems of religious thought that have ever appeared on the soil of India have been influenced in varying degrees by the philosophy and terminology of asceticism. Ancient Indian literature abounds in ascetic terminology and there are numerous terms which refer to ascetics or to diverse ascetic practices.
Muni, yati, bhiksu, yogin, sramana, tapasvin, tapas, mundaka, parivrajaka, dhyanin, sannyasin, tyagin, vairagin, atita, udasina, avadhuta, digambara, etc. are terms frequently used in Indian religious tradition. Nontheistic systems such asJainism, Buddhism and SankhyaYoga provide instances of ascetic culture in its. classical form. All these Sramanic systems of faith are predominantly ascetic though their philosophical theories place varying degrees of emphasis on bodily askesis. Forms of asceticism differ inJainism and Buddhism, the former being an extreme instance of it. Asceticism is the heart ofJaina caritra or acara which, along withJnana and darsana, constitutes the way to moksa.
In the Buddhist form of asceticism, there is no metaphysical dualism of God and the world, or of soul and the body. Phenomenal existence is viewed as characterized by suffering, impermanence and not self. The aim of ascetic culture is to go beyond this sphere of conditioned phenomena. The keynote of Buddhist ascetic culture is moderation; self mortification is rejected altogether; tapas is a form of excess which increases dukkha. The aim of ascetic effort is to secure freedom from suffering; this ascetic effort is to be made within the framework of the Middle Way. Among all schools of Indian ascetics the guru or preceptor is held in the highest esteem.
No one becomes an ascetic without receiving formal initiation (diksa) or ordination (pravargya) at the hands of a recognized teacher who is himself an ascetic of standing. Practice of various kinds of physical postures (asanas), meditation, study of Scriptures, devotional worship, discussion on subjects of religious and philosophical importance, going on pilgrimage to holy places, giving instruction to the laity, accepting gifts of dress materials and foodstuff, and radiating good will and a sense of religiousness and piety, are the usual facets of the life of Indian ascetics.
Ascetic way of life, in any religion is the way of self mortification. Injury to others is however disallowed. But Sikhism which of course emphasizes the importance of nonviolence never lets this dogma to humiliate man as a man and accepts the use of force as the last resort. Says Guru Gobind Singh in the Zafarnamah : chu kar az hamah hilte dar guzasht/halal astu burdan ba shamshir dast (22). Sikhism denies the efficacy of all that is external or merely ritualistic. Ritualism which may be held to be a strong pillar of asceticism has been held as entirely alien to true religion. Sikhism which may be described as pravrtti marga (way of active activity) over against nivrtti marga (way of passive activity or renunciation) enjoins man to be of the world, but not worldly.
Non-responsible life under the pretext of ascetic garb is rejected by the Gurus and so is renunciation which takes one away to solitary or itinerant life totally devoid of social engagement. Says Guru Nanak: "He who sings songs about God without understanding them; who converts his house into a mosque in order to satisfy his hunger; who being unemployed has his ears pierced (so that he can beg); who becomes a faqir and abandons his caste; who is called a guru or pir but goes around begging never fall at the feet of such a person. He who eats what he has earned by his own labour and yet gives some (to others) Nanak, it is he who knows the true way" (GG, 1245).
Here one may find the rejection of asceticism and affirmation of disciplined worldliness. A very significant body of the fundamental teachings of the Gurus commends non-attachment, but not asceticism or monasticism. The necessity of controlling the mind and subduing one`s egoity is repeatedly taught. All the virtues such as contentment (santokh), patience (dhiraja), mercy (daya), service (seva), liberality (dana), cleanliness (snana), forgiveness (ksama), humility (namrata), non-attachment (vairagya), and renunciation (tiaga), are fundamental constituents of the Sikh religion and ethics.
On the other hand, all the major vices or evils that overpower human beings and ruin their religious life, such as anger (krodha), egoism (aharikara), avarice (lobha), lust (kama), infatuation (moha), sinful acts (papa), pride (man), doubt (dim`dha), ownership (mamata), hatred (vair), and hostility (virodh) are condemned. Man is exhorted to eradicate them but certainly not through ascetic self mortification. Sahaj is attained through tension free, ethical living, grounded in spirituality.
In Sikhism all forms of asceticism are disapproved and external or physical austerities, devoid of devotion to God, are declared futile. An ascetic sage who is liberated from all evil passions is called avadhuta in Indian sacred literature. Guru Nanak reorientates the concept of avadhuta in purely spiritual terms as against its formularies. The sign of an avadhuta is that "in the midst of aspirations he dwells bereft of aspirations" suni machhindra audhu nisani/asa mahi nirasu valae/nihachau Nanak karate pae" (GG, 877). An ascetic is defined again as "one who burns up his egoity, and whose alms consist in enduring hardships of life and in purifying his mind and soul. He who only washes his body is a hypocrite" (GG, 952).
1. Hall, T.C., "Asceticism," in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Ed. James Hastings. Edinburgh, 1969
2. Eliade, Mircea, Yoga, Immortality and Freedom. Princeton, 1969
3. Chakraborty, Haripada, Asceticism in Ancient India. Calcutta, 1973
4. Sher Singh, The Philosophy of Sikhism. Lahore, 1944
5. Nripinder Singh, The Sikh Moral Tradition. Delhi, 1990